Thematic blocks:

1      Understanding conflict, war and violence. 2

2      Conflict transformation and peacebuilding/reconciliation. 3

3      Social psychology approaches to conflict resolution/reconciliation. 7

4      Civil society (conceptual approaches) 9

5      Civil society and peacebuilding/transitional justice. 12

6      Gender/women’s movements and war/peacebuilding. 17

7      History, identity and nation-making; contested history; history education. 18

8      Memory and social frameworks of meaning. 21

9      Memory and war, trauma, remembering past conflicts. 26

10        Transitional justice, memory and dealing with the past 29

11        Ethical issues/methods of history/memory research in a conflict/post-conflict context 38

12        Memory and history in Central and Eastern Europe. 39

13        Conflict in the post-Soviet space. 40

14        Memory, identity and history in the post-Soviet space. 41

15        Transitional justice in Central and Eastern Europe/Southeastern Europe. 42

16        Transitional justice in the post-Soviet space. 47

17         Civil society/transition in the post-Soviet space/Eastern Central Europe  48

18 Ukraine

19 Russia

20 North Caucasus

21 South Caucasus

1 Understanding conflict and violence

Bar-Tal, Daniel, Guy Abutbul-Selinger and Amiram Raviv. (2014) “The Culture of Conflict and Its Routinisation.” In The Palgrave Handbook of Global Political Psychology, edited by Paul Nesbitt-Larking, Catarina Kinnvall, Tereza Capelos and Henk Dekker, 369–87. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Collier, Paul and Hoeffler, Anke (2001) “Greed and Grievance in Civil War.” Oxford Economic Paper 56:663-695. 2001.

Collier, Paul, and Nicholas Sambanis. Understanding Civil War : Evidence and Analysis, Volume 1. Africa. Vol. 1. Washington: World Bank Group, 2005.

Collier, Paul, and Nicholas Sambanis. Understanding Civil War : Evidence and Analysis, Volume 2. Europe, Central Asia, and Other Regions. Vol. 2. Washington: World Bank Group, 2005.

Duffield, Mark R (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars: The Merging of Development and Security. London / New York, Zed Books.

Fearon, James and Laitin, David. 2000. “Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identity,” International Organization 54-4: 845–877.

Fearon, James D. and Laitin, David D (2003) “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97(1): 75-90.

Gagnon, Valère Philip. 1994. “Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of Serbia.” International Security 19 (3): 130. doi:10.2307/2539081.

Gagnon, Valère Philip. 2006. The Myth of Ethnic War: Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s. Paperback print. Cornell Paperbacks. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell Univ. Press.

Goldstein, Joshua. 2011. Winning the War on War. New York: Dutton and Penguin.

Guichaoua, Yvan (ed). 2011. Understanding Collective Political Violence. Palgrave Macmillan.

Kaldor, Marie. 2012. New War, Old War. Organized Violence in a Global Era. Polity Press.

Kalyvas, Stathis N (2001) “‘New’ and ‘Old’ Civil Wars, a Valid Distinction?” World Politics, 54, October 2001.

Kalyvas, Stathis. 2006. The Logic of Violence in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Keen, David. 1998. The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. International Institute for strategic studies Adelphi paper London.

Kerr, Pauline (2013) ‘Human Security’. In Alan Collins Contemporary Security Studies, Third Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 104-116.

Nordstrom, Carolyn (2004) Shadows of War: Violence, Power and International Profiteering in the Twenty-First Century. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Peterson, Roger. 2002. Understanding Ethnic Violence. Cambridge University Press.

Pinker, Steven. 2011. The Better Angels of our Nature: Why Violence has Declined. New York: Penguin.

Richards, Paul (ed) (2005) No Peace no War – An Anthropology of Contemporary Armed Conflict. Ohio University Press.

Ron, James (2003) Frontiers and Ghetto. University of California Press.

Sambanis, Nicholas (2001) “Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes?” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45(3): 259 – 282.

Smith, Steve (2005) ‘The Contested Concept of Security’ in Ken Booth (ed) Critical Security Studies and World Politics. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner Publishers: 27-62.

Weinstein, Jeremy (2006) Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. Cambridge University Press.

Wilmer, Franke (2002) The Social Construction of Man, the State, and War. London: Routledge.

2         Conflict transformation and peacebuilding/reconciliation

Austin, Beatrix, Martina Fischer, Hans-Joachim Giessmann, and Berghof Forschungszentrum für Konstruktive Konfliktbearbeitung, eds. 2011. Advancing Conflict Transformation. The Berghof Handbook 2. Michigan: Barbara Budrich Publishers.

Autesserre, Séverine. 2014. Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention. Cambridge University Press.

Avruch, Kevin. 1998. Culture and Conflict Resolution. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Barnett, Michael, Hunjoon Kim, Madalene O’Donnell, and Laura Sitea (2007) “Peacebuilding: What Is in a Name?” Global Governance, No. 13: 35-58.

Bercovitch, Jacob (2007) “Mediation in International Conflicts: Theory, Practice, and Development.” In Zartman and J. Lewis Rasmussen (2007) Peacemaking in International Conflict. Methods and Techniques. Washington, US Institute of Peace Press. Chapter 4 (pp. 163-194).

Bloomfield, D., T. Barnes, and L. Huyse. 2003. Reconciliation after violent conflict: A handbook. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).

Borer, T.A. (Ed.) (2006), Telling the Truth; Truth telling and Peace building in Post-conflict Societies, Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press.

Boutros-Gali, Boutros. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping. New York: United Nations, 1992.

Chetail, Vincent. 2009. “Introduction: Post-Conflict Peacebuilding – Ambiguity and Identity.” In Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: A Lexicon, edited by Vincent Chetail, 1–17. Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press.

Chetail, Vincent. Post-conflict Peacebuilding : A Lexicon. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2009.

Cocks, Joan (2012) “The Violence of Structures and the Violence of Foundings”, 34(2) New Political Science

Cousens, Elizabeth M, Kumar, Chetan, et al. 2000. Peacebuilding as Politics : Cultivating Peace in Fragile Societies. Boulder, Co: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Crocker, Chester A, Hampson, Fen Oslder and Aall Pamela R. (2004) Taming intractable conflicts: Mediation in the hardest cases. USIP Press.

Darby, John and Mac Ginty, Roger (2003) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave/Macmillan.

Doyle, Michal W. “Kant, Liberal Legacies and Foreign Affairs.” Philosophy and Public Affairs 12 (1983): 779–801.

de Coning, Cedric (2013) ‘Understanding Peacebuilding as Essentially Local’ Stability 2(1): 1-6.

Ellen L. Lutz, Eileen F. Babbitt and Hurst Hannum, ‚Human Rights and Conflict Resolution from the Practitioners‘ Perspective‘, 27(1) Fletcher Forum of World Affairs (2003)

Faure, Guy Olivier and Rubin, Jeffrey Z. 1993. Culture and Negotiations. London: Sage publications.

Fletcher, L.E., and H.M. Weinstein. 2002. Violence and social repair: Rethinking the contribution of justice to reconciliation. Human Rights Quarterly 24, no. 3: 573–639.

Francis, D. (2004) Culture, Power asymmetries and Gender in Conflict Transformation,

Galtung, J. (2000). Conflict transformation by peaceful means: The Transcend method. United Nations.

Galtung, Johan (1969) ‘Violence, Peace and Peace Research’, Journal of Peace Research 6(3):167-191.

Gawerc, Michelle I., (2006) “Peace-Building: Theoretical and Concrete Perspectives”, Peace & Change, Vol.31, No.4 October 435-478.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Nordkvelle, Jonas and Strand, Havard (2014) ‘Peace Research – Just the Study of War?’ Journal of Peace Research 51(2): 145-185.

Goodhand, Jonathan (1999) ‘From wars to complex political emergencies: Understanding conflict and peace-building in the new world disorder’, Third World Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 1: 13-26.

Humphrey, Michael (2005) “Reconciliation and the therapeutic state”, Journal of Intercultural Studies 26(3): 203–220. 

Hutchison, Emma, and Roland Bleiker. 2013. “Reconciliation.” In Routledge Handbook of Peacebuilding, edited by Roger Mac Ginty, 81–90. London and New York: Routledge.

ICISS – International Commission on  Intervention and State Sovereignty. The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. Edited by Gareth J. Evans and Mohamed Sahnoun. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2001.

Keen, David (2000) ‚War and Peace: What’s the Difference?‘, International Peacekeeping, 7(4): 1–22.

Krause, Keith and Oliver Jutersonke (2005), “Peace, Security and Development in Post-Conflict Environments”, Security Dialogue, Vol. 36, No. 4: 447-462.

Kriesberg, Louis and Bruce W. Dayton (2009), Constructive Conflicts: From Escalation to Resolution, Fourth Edition. Lanham Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield: 247-276.

Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building peace: Sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. Washington, D.C: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Lederach, John Paul (1995) Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, Syracuse, NY.

Leiner, Martin, and Christine Schliesser, eds. Alternative Approaches in Conflict Resolution. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018.

Long, William and Brecke, Peter. 2003. War and Reconciliation: Reason and Emotion in Conflict Resolution. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Lucima, O. (ed.) (2002) Protracted Conflict, Elusive Peace. Accord, Conciliation Resources, London.

Mac Ginty, Roger. International Peacebuilding and Local Resistance: Hybrid Forms of Peace. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Mac Ginty, R. (2013). Routledge handbook of peacebuilding. London : Routledge.

Mac Ginty, Roger. Peacebuilding. Thousand Oaks : SAGE, 2014, Four volumes.

Mac Ginty, Roger and Oliver P Richmond (2013) The Local Turn in Peace Building: a critical agenda for peace, Third World Quarterly, 34:5, 763-783.

Maddison, Sara (2014) “Relational transformation and agonistic dialogue in divided societies”, Political Studies, 1-17.

Marková, I., and Gillespie, A., eds (2012) Trust and conflict: Representation, culture and dialogue. London: Routledge.

Melander, Erik, Magnus Öberg and Jonathan Hall (2009) “Are ‘New Wars’ More Atrocious? Battle Severity, Civilians Killed and Forced Migration Before and After the End of the Cold War”. European Journal of International Relations 15(3): 505-536.

Montville, Joseph (1990) Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies. Lanham, MD, 1990.

Newman, Edward, Roland Paris, and Oliver P. Richmond, eds. New Perspectives on Liberal Peacebuilding. Tokyo ; New York: United Nations University Press, 2009.

Ramsbotham, Oliver, Tom Woodhouse, and Hugh Miall (2005). Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Ramsbotham, Oliver, Tom Woodhouse, and Hugh Miall (2012) “Ending Violent Conflict: Peacemaking.” Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Third Edition. Polity, 171-197.

Richmond, Oliver P. (2008) Peace in International Relations. New York: Routledge.

Rieker, Pernille, and Henrik Thune. Dialogue and Conflict Resolution : Potential and Limits. Surrey, England; Burlington, VT : Ashgate, 2015.

Ryan, Stephen. 2013. “The Evolution of Peacebuilding.” In Routledge Handbook of Peacebuilding, edited by Roger Mac Ginty, 25–35. London and New York: Routledge.

Saunders, H.H. (2011) Sustained Dialogue in Conflicts. Transformation and Change. NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sisk, Timothy. 1996. Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. New York: Carnegie Corporation.

Stedman, Stephen John, Rothshild, Donald and Cousens, Elizabeth M (2002) Ending Civil Wars. The Implementation of Peace Agreements. London, Lynne Rienner.

Stepanova, Ekaterina (2004), ‘War and peace building’, The Washington Quarterly, Vol. 27, No. 4: 127-136.

Villa-Vicencio, C. (2006) “The politics of reconciliation”, in: T. A. Borer (ed.) Telling the Truths. Truth Telling and Peace building in Post-Conflict Societies , University of Notre Dame press, 59-82.

Woodward, Susan L. “Do the Root Causes of Civil War Matter? On Using Knowledge to Improve Peacebuilding Interventions”, 1(2) Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding (2007).

Zartman and J. Lewis Rasmussen (2007) Peacemaking in International Conflict. Methods and Techniques. Washington, US Institute of Peace Press.

Zelizer, Craig and Rubinstein, Robert A. (eds) 2009. Building Peace: Practical Reflections from the Field. Sterling, VA: Kumarian Press.

3       Social psychology approaches to conflict resolution/reconciliation

Bar-Tal, D., and Halperin, E. (2011) Socio-psychological barriers to conflict resolution. In Intergroup conflicts and their resolution: Social psychological perspective (pp. 217–240). New York: Psychology Press.

Čehajić, S., and Brown, R. (2010) Silencing the past: Effect of intergroup contact on acknowledgment of ingroup atrocities. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1(2), 190–196.

Čehajić-Clancy, S., Effron, D. A., Halperin, E., Liberman, V., and Ross, L. D. (2011) Affirmation, acknowledgment of in-group responsibility, group-based guilt, and support for reparative measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 256–270.

Čehajić-Clancy, S., Goldenberg, A., Gross, J., and Halperin, E. (2016) Social-Psychological interventions for intergroup reconciliation: An emotion regulation perspective. Psychological Inquiry, 27(2), 73–88.

Doosje, B., and Branscombe, N. R. (2003). Attributions for the negative historical actions of a group. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33(2), 235–248.

Hilton, D. J., and Liu, J. H. (2005). How the past weighs on the present: Social representations of history and their role in identity politics. British Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 537–556.

Hilton, D. J., and Liu, J. H. (2008) Culture and intergroup relations: The role of social representations of history. In R. M. Sorrentino and Y. Susumu (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition across cultures (pp. 343–368). London: Academic Press.

Kelman, H. C. (2004). Reconciliation as identity change: A social psychological perspective. In Y. Bart-Siman-Tov (Ed.), From conflict resolution to reconciliation (pp. 111–124). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kelman, H. C. (2008) Reconciliation from a social-psychological perspective. In A. Nadler, T. Malloy and J. D. Fisher (Eds.), Social psychology of intergroup reconciliation (pp. 15–32). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kelman, H.C (2010) “Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation: A Social-psychological Perspective on ending Violent Conflict between Identity Groups”, Landscapes of Violence, Vol. 1: No.1.

Leach, C., Zeineddine, F., and Čehajić-Clancy, S. (2013) Moral immemorial: The rarity of self-criticism for previous generations’ genocide or mass violence. Journal of Social Issues, 69(1), 34–53.

 Liu, J. H., Fisher Onar, N., and Woodward, M. W. (2014a). Symbologies, technologies, and identities: Critical junctures theory and the multi-layered nation–state. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 43, Part A(0), 2–12.

Liu, J. H., Sibley, C. G., and Huang, L. (2014b). History matters: Effects of culture-specific symbols on political attitudes and intergroup relations. Political Psychology, 35(1), 57–79.

Nadler, A., and Shnabel, N. (2015) Intergroup reconciliation: Instrumental and socio-emotional processes and the needs-based model. European Review of Social Psychology, 26, 93–125.

Nadler, A., T. Malloy and J. D. Fisher (Eds.), 2008. Social psychology of intergroup reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Noor, Masi, Nurit Shnabel, and Samer Halabi. 2012. “When Suffering Begets Suffering: The Psychology of Competitive Victimhood Between Adversarial Groups in Violent Conflicts.” Personality and Social Psychology Review 4 (16): 352–374.

Roccas, S., and Berlin, A. (2015) Identification with groups and national identity. In P. Schmidt, J. Seethaler, J. Grimm, and L. Huddy (Eds.), Dynamics of national identity: Media and societal factors of what we are  (pp. 22–43). New York: Routledge.

Sammut G., E. Andreouli, G. Gaskell and J. Valsiner (Eds.) 2015, Handbook of social representations. Cambridge: CUP.

Shnabel, N., and Ullrich, J. (2016) Putting emotion regulation in context: The (Missing) role of power relations. Intergroup Trust, and Groups’ Need for Positive Identities in Reconciliation Processes. Psychological Inquiry, 27(2), 124–132.

Shnabel, N., Nadler, A., Ullrich, J., Dovidio, J. F., and Carmi, D. (2009) Promoting reconciliation through the satisfaction of the emotional needs of victimized and perpetrating group members: The needs-based model of reconciliation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(8), 1021–1030.

Vollhardt, J. R., and Twali, M. S. (2016) Emotion-based reconciliation requires attention to power differences, critical consciousness, and structural change. Psychological Inquiry, 27, 136–143.

Zembylas, M. (2015) Emotion and traumatic conflict: Re-claiming healing in education. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

4       Civil society (conceptual approaches)

Almond, Gabriel and Verba, Sidney. 1963. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Anheier, H., Glasius, M. and Kaldor, M. (eds) (2001). Global civil society 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Backer, D. and Carroll, D. 2000. NGOs and constructive engagement: promoting civil society, good governance and the rule of law. International Politics, 38: 1–25.

Beauclerk, J., B. Pratt, and R. Judge. 2011. Civil Society in Action: Global Case Studies in a Practice based Framework. Oxford: INTRAC.

Bernhard, M., and E. Karakoç. 2007. “Civil Society and the Legacies of Dictatorship.” World Politics 59 (4): 539–67.

Boesenecker, Aaron P. and Leslie Vinjamuri (2011) “Lost in Translation? Civil Society, Faith-based Organizations and the Negotiation of International Norms”, International Journal of Transitional Justice 5: 345–65.

Carothers, Thomas. 2004. Civil society: Think again. In Critical mission : Essays on democracy promotion, ed. T. Carothers, 99–106. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace .

Carothers, Thomas. 2002. “The End of the Transition Paradigm.” Journal of Democracy 13 (1): 5–21. doi:10.1353/jod.2002.0003.

Casey, J., et al. 2010. “Strengthening Government-Nonprofit Relations: International Experiences with Compacts.” Voluntary Sector Review 1 (1): 59–76.

CIVICUS – World Alliance for Citizen Participation. 2011. “State of Civil Society 2011.” Johannesburg: CIVICUS.

Clark, John. Worlds Apart: Civil Society and the Battle for Ethical Globalization. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, 2003.

Collier, David, and Steven Levitsky. 1997. “Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research.” World Politics 49 (03): 430–51. doi:10.1353/wp.1997.0009.

Cox, Brendan (2011) Campaigning for International Justice. Gates Foundation.

Della Porta, Donatella and Diani, Mario. 2006 (2nd ed.). Social Movements – An Introduction. Malden, MA, Oxford, Carlton: Blackwell Publishing.

Diamond, Larry (1994) ‘Toward Democratic Consolidation’, Journal of Democracy 5, no. 3: 4–17.

Edwards, Michael (2014, third edition). Civil Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Edwards, Michael, ed. (2011) The Oxford Handbook on Civil Society.

Falk, Richard. “Framing an Inquiry.” In Weak States, Strong Societies: Power and Authority in the New World Order, edited by Amin Saikal, 9–21. London: I.B. Tauris, 2015.

Ferguson, Adam. An Essay on the History of Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Florini, A. 2000. Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Fox, J., and L. D. Brown. 1998. The Struggle for Accountability: NGOs, Social Movements, and the World Bank. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Fraser, Nancy (1990) ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’, Social Text 25/26: 56–80.

Gaventa, J., “Civil Society and Power”, in The Oxford Handbook on Civil Society, M. Edwards, 2011, 416-427.

Gellner, E. (1994). Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and Its Rivals. London: Hamish Hamilton.

Gershman, C. 2004. Democracy promotion: The relationship of political parties and civil society. Democratization 11, no. 3: 27–35.

Hachhethu, K. 2007. Civil society and political participation., 1–15.

Howell, Jude and Jenny Pearce (2002) Civil Society and Development: A Critical Exploration. London: Lynne Rienner.

Huntington, S. 1992. The Third Wave: Democratization in the Late Twentieth Century. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.

Jordan . T. (2002) Activism: Direct Action, Hactivism and the Future of Society. London : Reaktion Books.

Kaldor, Mary and Sabine Selchow (with Sean Deel and Tamsin Murray-Leach) (2012) The ‘Bubbling Up’ of Subterranean Politics in Europe. London: Civil Society and Human Security Research Unit, London School of Economics and Politics Science.

Keane, J. (2003). Global civil society? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Keck, Margaret E., and Kathryn Sikkink. “Transnational Advocacy Networks in International and Regional Politics.” International Social Science Journal 51, no. 159 (March 1999): 89–101.

Khanna, Ashkay with Priyashri Mani, Zachary Petterson, Maro Pantazidou, and Maya Shqerat (2013) ‘The Changing Faces of Citizen Action: A Mapping Study through an “Unruly” Lens’, IDS Working Paper, no. 423.

Kittilson, M.C. and Dalton, R.J. (2011) “Virtual Civil Society: The New Frontier of Social Capital?” Political Behaviour, 33, 625-644.

Knight, B., H. Chigudu, and R. Tandon (2002) Reviving Democracy: Citizens at the Heart of Governance. Rugby: Earthscan.

Kopecký, Petr and Cas Mudde (2003) Rethinking civil society. Democratization 10, no. 3: 1–14.

Lewis, D., and N. Kanji (2009) NGOs and Development. London: Routledge.

Lundy, Patricia and Mark McGovern (2006) ‘Participation, Truth and Partiality’, Sociology 40, no. 1: 71–88.

May, R.A. 2005. Human rights NGOs and the role of civil society in democratization. In (Un)civil societies : Human rights and democratic transitions in Eastern Europe and Latin America, eds. R.A. May and A.K. Milton, 1–10. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

May, Rachel A., and Andrew K. Milton, eds. (Un)civil Societies: Human Rights and Democratic Transitions in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books, 2005.

Mercer, Claire (2002) ‘NGOs, Civil Society and Democratization: A Critical Review of the Literature’, Progress in Development Studies 2, no. 1: 5–22.

Pietrzyk, D. I. (2001) “Civil Society Conceptual History from Hobbes to Marx,” Marie Curie Working Papers, University of Wales Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth.

Rajesh Tandon and L. David Brown (2013) Civil societies at crossroads: lessons and implications, Development in Practice, 23:5-6, 784-796.

Rutzen, Douglas. „Civil Society Under Assault.“ Journal of Democracy 26, no. 4 (2015): 28-39.

Snow, David A., Donatella della Porta, Bert Klandermans, and Doug McAdam, eds. (2013) The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social and Political Movements. London: Wiley and Sons.

Spurk, Christoph. 2010. “Understanding Civil Society.” In Civil Society and Peacebuilding: A Critical Assessment, edited by Thania Paffenholz, 3–27. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Stacey, Simon, and Megan Meyer. “Civil Society and Violence: A Research Agenda.” Journal of Civil Society 1.2 (2005): 181–90.

Tarrow, Sidney (1998) Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tilly, Charles and Sidney Tarrow (2006) Contentious Politics. Boulder/London: Paradigm Publishers, 376–96 (on civil society and the public sphere).

Van Til, J. 2000. Growing Civil Society: From Non-profit Sector to Third Space. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Van Tuijl, P. 1999. NGOs and human rights: sources of justice and democracy. Journal of International Affairs, 52: 493–512.

Way, Lucan. “Civil Society and Democratization.” Journal of Democracy 25.3 (2014): 35–43.

White, Gordon. 2004. “Civil Society, Democratization and Development: Clearing the Analytical Ground.” In Civil Society in Democratization, edited by Peter J. Burnell and Peter Calvert, 6–21. London: Cass.

5        Civil society and peacebuilding/transitional justice

Aall, Pamela (2001) “What do NGOs Bring to Peacemaking”, In Crocker, Hampson, and Aall, Turbulent Peace: The Challenge of Managing International Conflict.

Anderson, T. (2012). Exploring Civil Society in Conflict and Post-conflict Countries: A continuum to peace. In W. Dörner & R.A. List (Eds.). Civil Society, Conflict and Violence: Insights from the CIVICUS Civil Society Index Project (CIVICUS Global Study of Civil Society Series, pp. 35–61).

Andrieu, Kora (2010) ‘Civilizing Peacebuilding: Transitional Justice, Civil Society and the Liberal Paradigm’, Security Dialogue 41, no. 5: 537–58.

Backer, David (2003) ‘Civil Society and Transitional Justice: Possibilities, Patterns and Prospects’, Journal of Human Rights 2, no. 3: 297–313.

Backer, David. 2009. “Cross-National Comparative Analysis.” In Assessing the Impact of Transitional Justice. Challenges for Empirical Research, edited by Hugo van der Merwe, Victoria Baxter, and Audrey R. Chapman, 23–89. Washington DC: USIP.

Bell, Christine and Johann Keenan (2004) ‘Human Rights Nongovernmental Organizations and the Problems of Transition’, Human Rights Quarterly 26, no. 2: 330–74.

Ben-Eliezer, Uri (2015) “The Civil Society, the Uncivil Society, and the Difficulty Israel Has Making Peace with the Palestinians.” Journal of Civil Society 11.2: 170-186.

Bernath, Julie, and Briony Jones. Resistance and Transitional Justice. First ed. Transitional Justice. Abingdon, Oxon [UK] ; New York : Routledge, 2018.

Bob, Clifford. “Civil and Uncivil Society.” In The Oxford Handbook of Civil Society, edited by Michael Edwards, 1st ed., 209–19. Oxford University Press, 2011.

———. The Global Right Wing and the Clash of World Politics. Cambridge Studies in Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Brianne Mcgonigle Leyh. „Changing Landscapes in Documentation Efforts: Civil Society Documentation of Serious Human Rights Violations.“ Utrecht Journal of International and European Law 33, no. 84 (2017): 44-58.

Brown, Graham K. 2016. “Civil Society Building in Post-Conflict Countries.” In Building Sustainable Peace, edited by Arnim Langer and Graham K. Brown, 110–23. Oxford University Press.

Chenoweth, Erica and Stephan, Maria (2008) “Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict”, International Security, Vol. 33, No. 1, Summer 2008, pp.7-44.

Chenoweth, Erica, and Maria J. Stephan. Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict. Paperback ed. Columbia Studies in Terrorism and Irregular Warfare. New York, NY: Columbia Univ. Press, 2013.

Conference Proceedings on ‘The Role of Civil Society in Peacebuilding, Conflict Resolution, and Democratization’, sponsored by the Rumi Forum and the Berkley Center for Religion, Peace and World affairs, Georgetown University, May 26, 2011, Washington, DC.

Crocker, David (1998) ‚Transitional Justice and International Civil Society: Toward a Normative Framework‘, Constellations, 5, 4: 492–517.

Crocker, David (2000) Truth commissions, transitional justice, and civil society. In: Rotberg, RI, Thompson, D (eds) Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp.99–121. 

Crocker, David. „Transitional Justice and International Civil Society: Toward a Normative Framework.“ Constellations 5, no. 4 (1998): 492-517.

Cubitt, C. (2013) “Constructing civil society: an intervention for building peace”, Peace building1:1, 91-108.

Democratic Progress Institute  (2012) ‘Civil Society Mediation in Conflict Resolution’. Democratic Progress Institute, 1-96.

Van der Merwe, Hugo Pradstoneolly Dewhirst, and Brandon Hamber, (1999) ‘Non-governmental Organisations and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission: An Impact Assessment’, Politikon 26, no. 1: 55–79.

Dörner, Wolfgang, and Regina A. List, eds. Civil Society, Conflict and Violence. London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, 2012.

Dörner, Wolfgang, and Regina A. List. „Civil Society, Conflict and Violence: An introduction.“ In Civil Society, Conflict and Violence: Insights from the CIVICUS Civil Society Index Project, edited by Wolfgang Dörner and Regina A. List, 1–14. CIVICUS Global Study of Civil Society Series. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012.

Duthie, Roger (2009) Building Trust and Capacity: Civil Society and Transitional Justice from a Development Perspective. New York: International Centre for Transitional Justice.

Fischer, Martina. 2011. “Civil Society in Conflict Transformation: Strengths and Limitations.” In Advancing Conflict Transformation, edited by Beatrix Austin, Martina Fischer, Hans-Joachim Giessmann, and Berghof Forschungszentrum für Konstruktive Konfliktbearbeitung, 287–314. The Berghof Handbook 2. Michigan: Barbara Bdrich Publishers.

Gready, Paul and Simon Robins (2017) Rethinking civil society and transitional justice: lessons from social movements and ‘new’ civil society, The International Journal of Human Rights, 21(7): 956-975.

Hayner, Priscilla (2005) ‘Responding to a Painful Past: The Role of Civil Society and the International Community’, in Dealing with the Past: Critical Issues, Lessons Learned, and Challenges for Future Swiss Policy, ed. Mo Bleeker and Jonathon Sisson, KOFF Series Working Paper. Bern: Swisspeace.

Hovil, Lucy and Moses Chrispus Okello (2011) ‘Editorial Note’, International Journal of Transitional Justice 5, no. 3.

Inclusive Peace and Transition Initiative (2016) “Civil Society in Peace Processes at a Glance”, Geneva: Inclusive Peace and Transition Initiative (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies), April 2016.

International Centre for Transitional Justice (2004) Truth Commissions and NGOs: The Essential Relationship, The ‘Frati Guidelines’ for NGOs Engaging with Truth Commissions. New York: ICTJ.

Kaldor, M., Kostovicova, D and Said, Y. (2007) “War and Peace: The Role of Global Civil Society”, in Anheier, H., Kaldor, M. and Glasius, M. Global Civil Society 2006/07. London: Sage.

Kaldor, Mary (2003) Global Civil Society – An Answer to War. Cambridge, Malden, MA: Polity.

Keck Margaret E. and Kathryn Sikkink (1998) Advocacy beyond Borders: Advocacy Networks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Labigne, Anaël, and Anne Nassauer. „Violence in Civil Society: Insights from the CSI databases.“ In Civil Society, Conflict and Violence: Insights from the CIVICUS Civil Society Index Project, edited by Wolfgang Dörner and Regina A. List, 127–143. CIVICUS Global Study of Civil Society Series. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012.

List, Regina A., and Wolfgang Dörner. „Conclusion: What can we now say about civil society, conflict and violence?.“ In Civil Society, Conflict and Violence: Insights from the CIVICUS Civil Society Index Project, edited by Wolfgang Dörner and Regina A. List, 144–154. CIVICUS Global Study of Civil Society Series. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012.

Lorentzi, Ulrika and Larsson, Annika. 2010. Actors for Sustainable Peace – Putting UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security into Practice, Stockholm: Operation 1325.

Marchetti, R. and Tocci, N. (2009) “Conflict Society: Understanding the Role of Civil Society in Conflict, Global Change”, Peace and Security. 21:2. 201-217.

McEvoy, Keiran and Lorna McGregor, eds (2008) Transitional Justice from Below: Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Nilsson, Desirée (2012) “Anchoring the Peace: Civil Society Actors in Peace Accords and Durable Peace’, 38(2) International Interactions.

Olsen, Tricia D., Leigh A. Payne, and Andrew G. Reiter. „An Exploratory Analysis of Civil Society and Transitional Justice.“ In Civil Society, Conflict and Violence: Insights from the CIVICUS Civil Society Index Project, edited by Wolfgang Dörner and Regina A. List, 62–84. CIVICUS Global Study of Civil Society Series. London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2012.

Paffenholz, Thania (2009) Summary of Results for a Comparative Research Project: Civil Society and Peace-building. Geneva: Center on Conflict, Development, and Peacebuilding, Working Paper, no. 4.

Paffenholz, Thania (2010) Civil Society and Peacebuilding: A Critical Assessment. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner.

Paffenholz, Thania (2014) “Civil Society and Peace Negotiations: Beyond the Inclusion-Exclusion Dichotomy”, 30(1) Negotiation Journal (January 2014).

Paffenholz, Thania. 2013. “Civil Society.” In Routledge Handbook of Peacebuilding, edited by Roger Mac Ginty, 347–59. London and New York: Routledge.

Paige, Arthur and ‎Christalla Yakinthou  (2018) Transitional justice, international assistance, and civil society : missed connections. Cambridge, New York, NY : Cambridge University Press.

Pouligny, Beatrice (2005), “Civil Society and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding: Ambiguities of International Programmes Aimed at Building ‘New’ Societies”, Security Dialogue, Vol. 36, No. 4: 495-510.

Risse, Thomas Stephen C. Ropp, and Kathryn Sikkink, eds (1999) The Power of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sandoval, Clara (2014) Transitional Justice and Social Change. Sur : International Journal on Human Rights. 11 (20), 181-192.

Sandoval-Villalba, Clara (2017) Reflections on the Transformative Potential of Transitional Justice and the Nature of Social Change in Times of Transition. In: Justice mosaics: How Context Shapes Transitional Justice in Fractured Societies. Duthie, Roger and Seils, P., eds.

Schwelling, Birgit, ed. Reconciliation, Civil Society, and the Politics of Memory: Transnational Initiatives in the 20th and 21st Century. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2012.

Shaw, Rosalind and Lars Waldorf with Pierre Hazan (2011) Localizing Transitional Justice: Interventions and Priorities after Mass Violence. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Simić, Olivera and Zala Volčič, eds (2013)Transitional Justice and Civil Society in the Balkans. London: Springer.

„Transnational Civil Society’s Contribution to Reconciliation: An Introduction.“ In Reconciliation, Civil Society, and the Politics of Memory: Transnational Initiatives in the 20th and 21st Century, 7. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2012.

van Leeuwen, M. and Verkoren, W. (2012) “Complexities and Challenges for Civil Society Building in Post-Conflict Settings”, Journal of Peace building and Development, 7:1, 81-94.

van Leeuwen, M. and Verkoren, W. (2013) Civil Society in Peace building: Global Discourse, Local Reality, International Peacekeeping, 20:2, 159-172.

Verdeja, E. (2009) “Civil Society and Reconciliation”, in Unchopping a Tree, Reconciliation in the Aftermath of Political Violence, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 136-159.

Waal, Alex de ed. (2015) Advocacy in Conflict: Critical Perspectives on Transnational Activism. London: Zed Books.

6       Gender/women’s movements and war/peacebuilding

Altınay, Ayşe Gül and Yektan Türkyılmaz, “Unraveling Layers of Silencing: Converted Armenian Survivors of the 1915 Catastrophe” in Amy Singer, Christoph Neumann and Selcuk Aksin Somel, eds., Untold Histories of the Middle East: Recovering Voices from the 19th and 20th Centuries. London: Routledge, 2011, 25-53.

Buss, Doris E. “Rethinking Rape as a Weapon of War” in Feminist Legal Studies 17, 2009, 145-163.

Cockburn, Cynthia (2004) “The Continuum of Violence: A Gender Perspective on War and Peace” in Sites of Violence: Gender and Conflict Zones, ed. Wenona Giles and Jennifer Hyndman. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 24-44.

Cockburn, Cynthia (2007) From Where We Stand – Women’s Movements Against Militarism and War. London, New York: Zed Books.

Copelon, Rhonda: “Surfacing Gender: Reconceptualizing Crimes Against Women in Time of War” in The Women and War Reader, eds. Lois Ann Lorentzen and Jennifer Turpin, New York: New York University Press, 1998, 63-79.

Enloe, Cynthia, “Filling the Ranks: Militarizing Women as Mothers, Soldiers, Feminists, and Fashion Designers” and “Conclusion: Decisions, Decisions, Decisions” in Maneuvers: The International Politics of Militarizing Women’s Lives. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2000, 235-300.

Goldenberg, Myrna, “Lessons Learned from Gentle Heroism: Women’s Holocaust Narratives” in Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 1996. 548, 78-93.

Jenkins, T., and Reardon, B. A. (2007) “Gender and peace: Towards a gender-inclusive, holistic perspective”, in C. Webel and J. Galtung, Handbook of peace and conflict studies London: Routledge (pp. 209-231).

Lentin, Ronit. “Femina sacra: Gendered memory and political violence.” Women’s Studies International Forum 29, 5, 2006: 463-473.

Liebman, Jacobs (2004) “Women, Genocide and Memory: The Ethics of Feminist Ethnography in Holocaust Research” in Gender and Society 18: 223-238.

MacKinnon, “Rape, Genocide and Women’s Human Rights” in Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1994, 183-196.

Rey, C. and Mckay, S. (2006) “Peacebuilding as a Gendered Process”, Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 62, No. 1, 141-153.

Sanasarian, Eliz, ‘Gender Distinction in the Genocidal Process: A Preliminary Study of the Armenian Case,’ Holocaust and Genocide Studies 4, 4, 1989: 449-461.

Sasson-Levy, O., Levy, Y. and Lomsky-Feder, E. (2011) “Women breaking the silence: military service gender and antiwar protest”, Gender and Society, Vol.25 No.6, December, 740-763.

Schott, Robin M. “War rape, natality and genocide.” Journal of Genocide Research 13, 1-2, 2011: 5-21.

Tachjian, Vahé, ‘Gender, nationalism, exclusion: the reintegration process of female survivors of the Armenian genocide’, Nations and Nationalism 15, 1, 2009: 60-80.

Theidon, K “Gender in Transition: Common Sense, Women and War” in Journal of Human Rights, 6 ,4, 2007: 453-478.

Wood, Elisabeth J. “Variation in Sexual Violence during War” In Politics and Society, 34, 3, 2006: 307-341.

7       History, identity and nation-making; contested history; history education 

Armstrong, John A. 1982. Nations before Nationalism. Chapel Hill: University of California Press.

Baets, Antoon de. 2009. Responsible History. New York: Berghahn Books.

Bekerman, Z., and Zembylas, M. (2012) Teaching contested narratives: Identity, memory and reconciliation in peace education and beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bentrovato, D., Korostelina, K. V., and Schulze, M. (Eds.). (2016) History can bite: History education in divided and postwar societies. Göttingen: VandR Unipress.

Berger, Stefan and Chris Lorenz, eds. (2010) Nationalizing the Past: Historians as Nation Builders in Modern Europe. Palgrave Macmillan.

Black, Jeremy (2005) Using history.  Oxford University Press.

Black, Jeremy (2014) Contesting History: Narratives of Public History. New York:  Bloomsbury Academic.

Brass, Paul R. 1991. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison. New Delhi ; Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications.

Breuilly, John. “Nationalism and the Making of National Pasts,” in François Gemenne and Susana Carvalho. Nations and their Histories. Constructions and Representations. London, 2009, pp.7-28.

Brubaker, Rogers. 1996. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge [England] ; New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carretero, M. (2011) Constructing patriotism. Teaching history and memories in global worlds. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

Carretero, M., and Bermudez, A. (2012) Constructing histories. In J. Valsiner (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 625–646). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Carretero, M., Asensio, M., and Rodriguez-Moneo, M. (Eds.). (2012) History education and the construction of national identities. Charlotte: Information Age Publishing.

Cole, E. A. (2007) Introduction: Reconciliation and history. In E. A. Cole (Ed.), Teaching the violent past: History education and reconciliation (pp. 1–28). Plymouth: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers Inc.

Cole, Elizabeth, ed (2007) Teaching the violent past: History education and reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.

Davies, L. (2004). Education and conflict: Complexity and chaos. London: Routledge.

Ferro, Marc. The Use and Abuse of History or How the Past is Taught to Children. London:

Grever, M., and Stuurman, S. (Eds.). (2007) Beyond the canon: History for the twenty-first century. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hodgkin, K, and Radstone, S (2003) (eds) Memory, History, Nation: Contested Pasts. London: Routledge. 

Hutchison, Emma. 2016. Affective Communities in World Politics: Collective Emotions after Trauma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.   

Jarausch, Konrad and Linderberger, Thomas, eds. (2007) Conflicting Memories. Europeanizing Contemporary History. New York: Berghan Books.

Lowenthal, David. (2009) On arraigning our ancestors: A critique of historical contrition. North Carolina Law Review 87: 901–66. 

Lowenthal, David. “Identity, Heritage, and History,” in Gillis, John R. (ed). Commemorations: the Politics of National Identity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994, 41-57.

McCully, A. (2005). Controversial issues, citizenship and history. In G. Mills (Ed.), Teaching sensitive and controversial issues in history (pp. 34–43). Nottingham: History Teacher Education Network.

McCully, A. (2010) The contribution of history to peace building. In G. Salomon and E. Cairns (Eds.), Handbook on peace education (pp. 213–222). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

McCully, A. (2012) History teaching, conflict and the legacy of the past. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 7(2), 145–159.

McKnight, A. (2004). Historical trauma, the persistent of memory and the pedagogical problems of forgiveness, justice and peace. Educational Studies: A Journal of the American Educational Studies Association, 36, 140–158.

Oberschall, Anthony. 2013. “History and Peacebuilding.” In Routledge Handbook of Peacebuilding, edited by Roger Mac Ginty, 171–82. London and New York: Routledge.

Páez, D., Bobowic, M., and Liu, J. H. (2017) Social representations of the past and competences in history education. In M. Carretero, S. Berger and M. Grever (Eds.), Handbook of research in historical culture and history education (pp. 491–510). Palgrave Macmillan.

Psaltis, Charis, Mario Carretero, and Sabina Čehajić-Clancy, eds. History Education and Conflict Transformation. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

Rüsen, J. (2004). Historical consciousness: Narrative structure, moral function, and ontogenetic development. In P. Seixas (Ed.), Theorizing historical consciousness (pp. 63–85). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Seixas, P. (Ed.). (2004). Theorizing historical consciousness. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Shaheed, Farida. 2013. “The Writing and Teaching of History.” Report of the UN Special Rapporteur in the Field of Cultural Rights A/68/296 EFSACR. United Nations.

Smith, A., and Vaux, T. (2003). Education, conflict and international development. London: Department of International Development.

Torpey, J (2006) Making Whole What has been Smashed: On Reparations Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 

Torpey, J (ed.) (2003) Politics and the Past: On Repairing Historical Injustices. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. 

Trouillot, M-R. (1995) Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History. Beacon Press.

Van Alphen, F., and Carretero, M. (2015) The construction of the relation between national past and present in the appropriation of historical master narratives. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science., 49(3), 512–530.

Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical thinking and other unnatural acts. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Zembylas, M., Charalambous, C., and Charalambous, P. (2016) Peace education in a conflict-troubled society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

8       Memory and social frameworks of meaning

Abdelal, R., Herrera, Y. M., Johnston, A. I., and McDermott, R. (2006) Identity as a variable. Perspectives on Politics, 4(4), 695–711.

Assman, Aleida (2006) “History, Memory and the Genre of Testimony” in Poetics Today, 27, 2: 261-273.

Assman, Jan (2006) Religion and Cultural Memory. Stanford, California University Press.

Assmann, A, Conrad, S (eds) (2010) Memory in a Global Age: Discourses, Practices and Trajectories. London: Palgrave. 

Assmann, A., and Shortt, L. (2011) Memory and political change: Introduction. In A. Assmann and L. Shortt (Eds.), Memory and political change (pp. 1–16). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Assmann, Aleida. “Canon and Archive,” in Cultural Memory Studies: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, by Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2008, 97-108.

Assmann, Jan. 2008. “Communicative and Cultural Memory.” In Cultural Memory Studies: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, edited by Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning, 109–18. Media and Cultural Memory ; Medien Und Kulturelle Erinnerung. Berlin ; New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Bell, D. S. A. (2003). Mythscapes: Memory, mythology, and national identity. British Journal of Sociology, 54(1), 63–81.

Beyen, Marnix, and Brecht Deseure. Local Memories in a Nationalizing and Globalizing World. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York, NY : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Burke, Peter. “History as Social Memory,” in his Varieties of Cultural History. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1997

Cairns, E., and Roe, M. D. (2003). Introduction: Why memories in conflict? In E. Cairns and M. D. Roe (Eds.), The role of memory in ethnic conflict (pp. 3–8). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chandra, K. (2006) What is ethnic identity and does it matter? Annual Review of Political Science, 9, 397–424.

Connerton, P (2008) Seven types of forgetting. Memory Studies 1(1): 59–81. 

Connerton, P. (1992). How societies remember. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cubbit, G. (2007) History and memory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.

de Brito, A.B. (2010), ‘Transitional Justice and Memory: Exploring Perspectives’, South European Society and Politics, 15(3): 359–376. 

de Brito, A.B., Gonzalez Enriquez, C. Aquilar, P. (2001), The Politics of Memory and Democratization (Oxford: Oxford University Press). 

Epstein, J. (2001). Remember to forget: The problem of traumatic cultural memory. In J. Epstein and L. H. Lefkovitz (Eds.), Shaping losses: Cultural memory and the Holocaust (pp. 186–204). Chicago: University of Illinois Press.

Erll, Astrid (2008) “Cultural Memory Studies: An Introduction.” In Cultural Memory Studies. An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, edited by Astrid Erll and Ansgar Niinning, 1–18. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Evans, R. (2003). Introduction. Redesigning the past: History in political transitions. Journal of Contemporary History, 38(1), 5–12.

Gedi, Noa and Yigal Elam (1996), “Collective Memory — What Is It?,” History and Memory 8:1: 30-50.

Gillis, G. R. (1994). Memory and identity: The history of a relationship. In J. R. Gillis (Ed.), Commemorations: The politics of national identity (pp. 3–24). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Gillis, John R. (ed). Commemorations: the Politics of National Identity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994

Halbwachs, Maurice (1980[1950]) The Collective Memory. Harper and Row.

Halbwachs, Maurice. 1967. Das Kollektive Gedächtnis. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.

Healy, Chris, Tumarkin, Maria M. (2011) Special Issue: Social Memory and Historical Justice: Introduction, Journal of Social History, 44(4), 1007-101.

Huyssen, A. (2003). Present pasts: Urban palimpsests and the politics of memory. Stanford, CA:Stanford University Press.

Irwin-Zarecka, Iwona. 1994. Frames of Remembrance: The Dynamics of Collective Memory. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Jansen, S. (2002). The violence of memories: Local narratives of the past after ethnic cleansing in Croatia. Local History, 6(1), 77–94.

Jelin, E. (2003). State repression and the struggles for memory. London: Latin American Bureau.

Judt, Tony (1992) “The Past is Another Country: Myth and Memory in Postwar Europe,” Daedalus 21, no.4

Judt, Tony “The past is another country: myth and memory in post-war Europe” In Memory and power in post-war Europe. Studies in the Presence of the Past / ed. by J.-W. Muller. – Cambridge University Press, 2004, 157-183

Kansteiner, W. (2002). Finding meaning in memory: A methodological critique of collective memory studies. History and Theory, 41, 179–197.

Kattago, S. (2009) Agreeing to disagree on the legacies of recent history. Memory, pluralism and Europe after 1989. European Journal of Social Theory, 12(3), 375–395. doi:10.1177/1368431009337352

Klein, Kerwin L. “On the Emergence of Memory in Historical Discourse,” Representations 69 (2000).

Le Goff, Jacques. History and Memory. New York: Columbia UP, 1992.

Lebow, R. N. (2006) The memory of politics in postwar Europe. In Richard Ned Lebow, Wulf Kansteiner, and Claudio Fogu (Eds.), The politics of memory in postwar Europe (pp. 1–39). Durham,NC: Duke University Press.

Lebow, R. N., Kansteiner W., and Fogu, C. (Eds.). (2006) The politics of memory in postwar Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Lowenthal, David (1998) “Fabricating Heritage,” History and Memory 10:1: 5–24.

Lowenthal, David The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge University Press, 2003

Marc Auge, M. (2004). Oblivion (Marjolijn de Jager, Trans.). London: University of Minnesota Press.

McGrattan, C. (2012) Memory, politics and identity: Haunted by history. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Megill, Allan. 1998. “History, Memory, Identity.” History of the Human Sciences 11 (3): 67–84.

Megill, Allan. (2011) History, memory, identity. In J. Olick, V. Vinitzky-Seroussi, and D. Levy (Eds.), The collective memory reader (pp. 193–197). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Misztal, Barbara A. 2004. “The Sacralization of Memory.” European Journal of Social Theory 7 (1): 67–84. doi:10.1177/1368431004040020.

Müller, J-W. (2002) “Introduction: the power of memory, the memory of power and the power over memory” in J-W. Müller, ed., Memory and Power in Post-War Europe. Studies in the Presence of the Past. Cambridge UP, 1-35.

Nora, Pierre (1989) “Between Memory and History: Les Lieux De Mémoire”, Representations 26, 7-24.

Nora, Pierre (1996) “General Introduction: Between Memory and History” in Realms of Memory: Rethinking the French Past. Vol. 1: Conflicts and Divisions ed. by Peirre Nora. NY: Columbia Press, 1-20.

Nora, Pierre. “The Reasons for the Current Upsurge of Memory,” Transit 22 (2002)

Nora, P. (1992). Realms of memory. The construction of the French past. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Olick, Jeffrey K. 1999. “Collective Memory: The Two Cultures.” Sociological Theory 17 (3): 333–48. doi:10.1111/0735-2751.00083.

Olick, Jeffrey. (2007) The politics of regret. On collective memory and historical responsibility. New York,NY: Routledge.

Passerini, L (2003) Memories between silence and oblivion. In: Hodgkin, K, Radstone, S (eds) Memory, History, Nation: Contested Pasts. London: Routledge, pp.238–54.  

Poole, Ross (2008) “Memory, History and the Claims of the Past,” Memory Studies 1:2: 149–166.

Radstone, S (2008) Memory studies: For and against. Memory Studies 1(1): 31–9. 

Reichel, P (1995) Politik mit der Erinnerung: Gedächtnisorte im Streit um die national-sozialistische Vergangenheit. Munich: Carl Hauser. 

Renan, E (1947–61[1882]) Qu’est-ce qu’une nation? In: Psichari, H (ed.) Oeuvres complètes d’Ernest Renan 1. Paris: Calmann-Lévy, pp.886–907. 

Ricoeur, P (1983–85) Temps et récit (3 vols). Paris: Seuil. 

Ricoeur, P (2000) La mémoire, l’histoire, l’oubli. Paris: Seuil. 

Ricoeur, P. (1999). Memory and forgetting. In R. Kearney and M. Dooley (Eds.), Questioning ethics: Contemporary debates in philosophy (pp. 5–11). London: Routledge.

Ricœur, Paul, Kathleen Blamey, and David Pellauer. Memory, History, Forgetting. Chicago, Ill.: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2010.

Rigney, Ann (2012) Reconciliation and remembering: (how) does it work? (special issue on transitional justice and memory)

Schudson, M. (1989). The present in the past versus the past in the present. Communication, 11, 105–113.

Smith, A. D. (1991). National identity. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Strath, Bo. “Introduction. Myth, Memory and History in the Construction of Community,” Myth and Memory in the Construction of Community: Historical Patterns in Europe and Beyond, Bo Strath (ed.), Bruxelles, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt/M, New York, Wien: P.I.E.-Peter Lang, 2000, 19-46

Troebst, S. (2010) Halecki revisited: Europe’s conflicting cultures of remembrance. In M. Pakierand B. Stråth (Eds.), A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance (pp. 56–63). Oxford: Berghahn.

Welzer, Harald (2008) “Communicative Memory.” In Cultural Memory Studies. An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook, edited by Astrid Erll, and Ansgar Niinning, 285–300. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

9       Memory and war, trauma, remembering past conflicts

Andrews, Sue. “Remembering the Holocaust–Gender Matters.” Social Alternatives 22, 2, 2003: 16-21.

Bell, D, ed. (2010) Memory, Trauma and World Politics: Reflections on the Relationship between Past and Present. London: Palgrave. 

Berger, Thomas  (2012) War, guilt, and world politics after World War II. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.

Berger, S. (2010) Remembering the Second World War in Western Europe 1945–2005. In M.Pakier and S. Bo (Eds.), A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance (pp.119–136). Oxford: Berghahn.

Bloomfield, David. On Good Terms: Clarifying Reconciliation. Berghof Report 14. Berlin: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2006.

Caruth, Cathy (1991) “Unclaimed Experience: Trauma and the Possibility of History,” Yale French Studies, no. 79: 181–92.

Caruth, Cathy (1996) Unclaimed experience : trauma, narrative, and history. Baltimore ; London: The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

Cohen, S (2009) Unspeakable memories and commensurable laws. In: Karstedt, S (ed.) Legal Institutions and Collective Memories. Oxford and Portland, OR: Hart Publishing, pp.27–38. 

Cole, Tim (2002) “Review Article: Scales of Memory, Layers of Memory: Recent Works on Memories of the Second World War and the Holocaust”, Journal of Contemporary History, January, Vol.37(1), 129-138.

Cole, Tim (2002) Review Article: Scales of Memory, Layers of Memory: Recent Works on Memories of the Second World War and the Holocaust Journal of Contemporary History,  Vol.37(1), pp.129-138.

Edkins, Jenny (2003) “The Rush to Memory and the Rhetoric of War,” Journal of Political and Military Sociology 31:2: 231–51.

Edkins, Jenny. 2003. Trauma and the Memory of Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Feuchtwang, S (2010) Memorials to injustice. In: Bell, D (ed.) (2010) Memory, Trauma and World Politics: Reflections on the Relationship between Past and Present. London: Palgrave, pp.176–94. 

Fulbrook, M. (1999). German national identity after the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory. 25th anniversary ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Goebel, Stefan (2001) “Intersecting Memories: War and Remembrance in Twentieth-Century Europe”, The Historical Journal, Vol.44(3), 853-858.

Goldhagen, Daniel J. “Why the Perpetrators Act”, in: Worse than War. Genocide, Eliminationism, and the Ongoing Assault on Humanity, New York: Public Affairs. 2009. Chapter 5, 145-231.

Hayden, Robert (1994) “Recounting the Dead: The Rediscovery and Redefinition of Wartime Massacres in Late-and Post-Communist Yugoslavia”, in: Watson, Rubie S.: Memory, History, and Opposition Under State Socialism, 167-189.

Horowitz, Sara R. “Gender, Genocide, and Jewish Memory”, Prooftexts 20(1/2) 2000: 158-190.

Hunt, N. (2010) Memory, war and trauma. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ignatieff, M (1997) The Warrior’s Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience. New York: Metropolitan Books. 

Kansteiner, W. (2006) Losing the war, winning the memory battle: The legacy of Nazism, World War II, and the Holocaust in the Federal Republic of Germany. In R. N. Lebow, K. Wulf, and C. Fogu (Eds.), The politics of memory in postwar Europe, 102–146. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Kellenbach, Katharina, von. „Vanishing Acts: Perpetrators in Postwar Germany” in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 17. 2. 2003: 305-329.

Laban Hinton, Alexander, Thomas La Pointe, and Douglas Irvin-Erickson, eds. (2013) Hidden Genocides: Power, Knowledge, Memory. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

LaCapra, Dominick (1999) “Trauma, Absence, Loss,” Critical Inquiry 25, no. 4: 696–727.

Laub, Dori. “Bearing Witness or the Vicissitudes of Listening.” In The Holocaust: Theoretical Readings. (eds). Neil Levi and Michael Rothberg. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 2003, 221-226.

McGrattan, Cillian and Stephen Hopkins (2017) Memory in Post-Conflict Societies: From Contention to Integration?, Ethnopolitics, 16:5, 488-499.

Mithander, Conny  (2007) Collective traumas : memories of war and conflict in 20th-century Europe. Bruxelles ; Bern : P.I.E. P. Lang.

Mushaben, Joyce Marie, “Memory and Holocaust: Processing the Past through a Gendered Lens” in History of Human Sciences. 2-3, 17, 2004: 147-185.

Noon, David Hoogland (2005)”Operation Enduring Analogy: World War II, the War on Terror, and the Uses of Historical Memory,” Rhetoric and Public Affairs 7:3: 339–64.

Pakier, Małgorzata and Bo Stråth (Eds.), A European memory? Contested histories and politics of remembrance (pp. 1–20).Oxford: Berghahn.

Radstone, Susannah (2007) “Trauma Theory: Contexts, Politics, Ethics”, Paragraph, Vol.30(1), 9-29.

Ray, L. (2006) Mourning, melancholia and violence. In D. Bell (Ed.), Memory, trauma and world politics (pp. 135–154 ). Basingstoke: Palgrave .

Reading, Anna, The Social Inheritance of the Holocaust: Gender, Culture and Memory. Palgrave, 2002.

Robben, Antonius C.G. M. and Marcelo M. Suarez-Orozco, eds. (2000) Cultures under Siege: Collective Violence and Trauma. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge UP.

Rogers, Kim Lacy and Selma Leydersdorff with Graham Dawson, eds. (1999) Trauma and Life Stories: International Perspectives. London: Routledge.

Rothberg, M (2009) Multidirectional Memory: Remembering the Holocaust in the Age of Decolonization. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 

Saunders R. and K. Aghaie (2005) ‘Introduction: Memory and Mourning’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 25:1, 16-29.

Schwarz, Gudrun, “‘During Total War, We Girls Want to Be Where We Can Really Accomplish Something’” in Crimes of War: Guilt and Denial in the Twentieth Century, eds. Omer Bartov, Atina Grossmann, and Mary Nolan, New York: The New Press, 2002, 121-137.

Sivan, E., and Winter, J. (1999). Setting the framework. In E. Sivan,  J. Winter (Eds.), War and remembrance in the twentieth century (pp. 6–39). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stier, Oren Baruch, Committed to Memory: Cultural Mediations of the Holocaust, University of Massachusetts Press, 2003.

Volkan, Vamik D. 2001. “Transgenerational Transmissions and Chosen Traumas: An Aspect of Large-Group Identity.” Group Analysis 34 (1): 79–97. doi:10.1177/05333160122077730.

Wagner, Sarah (2013) “The Making and Unmaking of an Unknown Soldier” Social Studies of Science, 1-26.

Winter, Jay (1995) “War Memorials and the Mourning Process” in Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning: The Great War in European Cultural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 78-116. 

Winter, Jay (2006), Remembering War: The Great War between History and Memory in the 20th Century (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).

Wood, Nancy (1999) Vectors of memory : legacies of trauma in postwar Europe. Oxford ; New York : Berg.

Zehfuss, M. (2006) “Remembering to forget, forgetting to remember”. in D. Bell, ed, Memory, trauma and world politics, 213–230. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

10    Transitional justice, memory and dealing with the past

Akhavan, Payam (2009) “Are International Criminal Tribunals a Disincentive Peace?: Reconciling Judicial Romanticism with Political Realism”, 31 Human Rights Quarterly .

Albin, Cecilia (2009) „Peace vs. Justice — and Beyond.“ In The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Resolution, 580-594. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Austin, Robert C. 2015. “Transitional Justice as Electoral Politics,” in Stan, Lavinia and Nedelsky, Nadya, eds. Post-Communist Transitional Justice: Lessons from 25 Years of Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press, 30–50.   

Avruch, Kevin (2010) “Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: problems in Transitional Justice and the reconstruction of identity”, Transcultural Psychiatry, Vol. 47 (1): 33-49.

Bakiner, Onur. 2016. Truth Commissions: Memory, Power, and Legitimacy. Pennsylvania Studies in Human Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bakiner, Onur. 2014. “Truth Commission Impact: An Assessment of How Commissions Influence Politics and Society.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 8, 1: 6–30.   

Barahona de Brito, Alexandra, Gonzaléz-Enríquez, Carmen, and Aguilar, Paloma. 2001. “Introduction,” in de Brito, Alexandra Barahona, Gonzaléz-Enríquez, Carmen, and Aguilar, Paloma, eds. The Politics of Memory: Transitioning Justice in Democratizing Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1–39.

Barkan, Elazar (2000) The Guilt of Nations: Restitution and Negotiating Historical Injustice. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 

Barkan, Elazar and Karn, A (eds) (2006) Taking Wrongs Seriously: Apologies and Reconciliation. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. 

Barkan, Elazar, and Belma Bećirbašić. 2015. “The Politics of Memory, Victimization and Activism in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina.” In Historical Justice and Memory, edited by Klaus Neumann and Janna Thompson, 95–113. Critical Human Rights. Madison, Wis: The Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

Barkan, Elazar. 2005. “Engaging History: Managing Conflict and Reconciliation.” History Workshop Journal 59: 229–36.

Barkan, Elazar. 2009. “Historians and Historical Reconciliation.” American Historical Review 114 (4): 899–913.

Barkan, Elazar. 2015. “Historical Dialogue: Beyond Transitional Justice and Conflict Resolution.” In Historical Justice and Memory, edited by Klaus Neumann and Janna Thompson, 185–201. Critical Human Rights. Madison, Wis: The Univ. of Wisconsin Press.

Barkan, Elazar. 2016. “Memories of Violence: Micro and Macro History and the Challenges to Peacebuilding in Colombia and Northern Ireland.” Irish Political Studies 31 (1): 6–28.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov (2014) ‘Linking Peace and Justice in Peacemaking,’ in Karin Aggestam and Annika Bjorkdahl (eds) Rethinking Peacebuilding: The Quest for Just Peace in the Middle East and the Western Balkans. London and New York: Routledge.

Beattie, Andrew. 2009. “An Evolutionary Process: Contributions of the Bundestag Inquiries into East Germany to an Understanding of the Role of Truth Commissions.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 3, 2: 229–49.   

Bell, Christine. 2009. „Transitional Justice, Interdisciplinarity and the State of the ‚Field‘ or ‚Non-Field‘.“ International Journal of Transitional Justice 3(1): 5-27.

Bevernage, Berber. 2010. “Writing the Past out of the Present: History and Politics of Time in Transitional Justice.” History Workshop Journal 69: 111–31.

Brahm, Eric. 2009. „What Is a Truth Commission and What Does It Matter?“ Peace and Conflict Review 3(2): 1-14.

Brahm, Eric. 2010. The Impact of Transitional Justice in Post-Conflict Environments. Synthesis for the Program on States and Security,

Brems, Eva. 2011. „Transitional Justice in the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights.“ Inter­ national Journal of Transitional Justice 5(2): 282-303.

Brooks, RL (ed.) (1999) When Sorry Isn’t Enough: The Controversy over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice. New York: New York University Press. 

Campbell, David (1998) National Deconstruction: Violence, Identity and Justice in Bosnia. London: University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Chrisje Brants, and Katrien Klep. „Transitional Justice: History-Telling, Collective Memory, and the Victim-Witness.“ International Journal of Conflict and Violence 7, no. 1 (2013): 36-49.

Cole, Elizabeth A. 2007. “Transitional Justice and the Reform of History Education.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 1, 1: 115–37.   

Cole, Elizabeth and Murphy, Karen. 2011. “History Education Reform, Transitional Justice and the Transformation of Identities.” International Center for Transitional Justice, April 20.

Curry, Jane L. 2007. „When an Authoritarian State Victimizes the Nation: Transitional Justice, Collective Memory, and Political Divides.“ International Journal of Sociology 37(1): 58-73.

Daly, Erin. 2008. “Truth Skepticism: An Inquiry into the Value of Truth in Times of Transition.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 2, 1: 23–41.   

Dancy, Geoff. 2000. “Impact Assessment, Not Evaluation: Defining a Limited Role for Positivism in the Study of Transitional Justice.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 4, 3: 355–76.

David, Roman. 2004. “Transitional Injustice? Criteria for Conformity of Lustration to the Right to Political Expression.” Europe-Asia Studies 56, 6: 789–812.   

David, Roman. 2006. “From Prague to Baghdad: Lustration Systems and their Political Effects.” Government and Opposition 41, 3: 347–72.  

de Brito, A., Aguilar, P., and Gonza´lez-Enrı´quez, C. (2001). Introduction. In A. de Brito, P. Aguilar, and C. Gonza´lez-Enrı´quez (Eds.), The politics of memory: Transitional justice in democratizing societies (pp. 1–39). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

De Greiff, P (ed.) (2006) The Handbook of Reparations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

Drumbl, Mark (2007) Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law. Cambridge University Press.

Dworkin, Anthony (2014) International Justice and the Prevention of Atrocity,

Elster, Jon. 2004. Closing the Books: Transitional Justice in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elster, Jon. ed. 2006. Retribution and Reparation in the Transition to Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.   

Felman, Shoshona, “Theaters of Justice: Arendt in Jerusalem, the Eichmann Trial, and the Redefinition of Legal Meaning in the Wake of the Holocaust,” Critical Inquiry Volume 27, 2 2001: 201-238.

Fijalkowski, Agata, and Raluca Grosescu. 2015. Transitional Criminal Justice in Post-Dictatorial and Post-Conflict Societies. Amsterdam: Intersentia.

Firchow, Pamina and Roger Mac Ginty, ‘Indivisibility of Rights: Closing the Gap on the Justice versus Peace Debate’, in From Transitional to Transformative Justice, ed. Paul Gready and Simon Robins (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming).

Fischer, Martina.  2011. “Transitional Justice and Reconciliation: Theory and Practice.” In Advancing Conflict Transformation, edited by Beatrix Austin, Martina Fischer, Hans-Joachim Giessmann, and Berghof Forschungszentrum für Konstruktive Konfliktbearbeitung, 405–30. The Berghof Handbook 2. Michigan: Barbara Bdrich Publishers.

Fletcher, Laurel and Harvey Weinstein (2009) ‘Context, Timing and the Dynamics of Transitional Justice: A Historical Perspective’, Human Rights Quarterly 31: 163–220.

Fletcher, Laurel E., and Harvey M. Weinstein. 2015. „Writing Transitional Justice:An Empirical Evaluation of Transitional Justice Scholarship in Academic Journals.“ Journal of Human Rights Practice 7(2): 177-198.

Freeman, Mark and Hayner, Priscilla. 2003. “Truth-Telling,” in Bloomfield, David, ed. Reconciliation after Violent Conflict: A Handbook. Stockholm: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 126–7.

Freeman, Mark. 2006. Truth Commissions and Procedural Fairness. New York: Cambridge University Press.   

Gibney, M (ed.) (2008) The Age of Apology: Facing Up to the Past. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 

Gonzalez, Eduardo, Elena Naughton and Felix Reategui (2014) Challenging the Conventional: Can Truth Commissions Strengthen Peace Processes? International Center for Transitional Justice and the Kofi Annan Foundation.

Gready, Paul and Simon Robins (2014) “From Transitional to Transformative Justice: A New Agenda for Practice,” International Journal of Transitional Justice 8, no. 3: 339–361. 

Grodsky, B. 2009. Re-ordering justice: Towards a new methodological approach to studying transitional justice. Journal of Peace Research 46, no. 6: 819–37.

Grodsky, Brian K. 2011. The Costs of Justice: How New Leaders Respond to Previous Rights Abuses. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.

Guidance Note of the Secretary-General: United Nations Approach to Transitional Justice, March 2010.

Haberer, Erich, “History and Justice: Paradigms of Persecution of Nazi Crimes” in Holocaust and Genocide Studies 19. 3. 2005: 487-519.

Hamber, Brandon and Wilson, Richard A.. 2002. “Symbolic Closure through Memory, Reparation and Revenge in Post-Conflict Societies.” Journal of Human Rights 1, 1: 35–53.   

Harff, Barbara (2003) “No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955”, in The American Political Science Review, 97, 1: 57-73.

Hashimoto, Nobuya. 2016. “Maneuvering Memories of Dictatorships and Conflicts,” in Corner, Paul and Lim, Jie-Hyun, eds. The Palgrave Handbook of Mass Dictatorship. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 171–84.

Hayner, Priscilla (2011) Unspeakable Truths: Transitional Justice and the Challenge of Truth Commissions, Second Edition. New York: Routledge.

Hayner, Priscilla. 2000. “Past Truths, Present Dangers: The Role of Official Truth Seeking in Conflict Resolution and Prevention,” in Stern, Paul and Druckman, Daniel, eds. International Conflict Resolution after the Cold War. Washington: National Academies Press, 338–82.

Hazan, Pierre, Rosalind Shaw, and Lars Waldorf. Localizing Transitional Justice : Interventions and Priorities after Mass Violence. Stanford Studies in Human Rights. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 2010.

Horne, C. M. 2014. “The Impact of Lustration on Democratization in Postcommunist Countries.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 8 (3): 496–521. doi:10.1093/ijtj/iju011.

Kaminski, Marek M, and Monika Nalepa. 2006. „Judging Transitional Justice a New Criterion for Evaluating Truth Revelation Procedures:‘ Journal of Conflict Resolution 50(3): 383-408.

Karn, Alexander. 2006. “Depolarizing the Past. The Role of Historical Commissions in Conflict Mediation and Reconciliation.” Journal of International Affairs 60 (1): 31–50.

Karn, Alexander. 2016. Amending the Past: Europe’s Holocaust Commissions and the Right to History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Killingsworth, Matt. 2010. „Lustration and Legitimacy.“ Global Society 24: 71-90.

Kim, Hunjoon and Sikkink, Kathryn. 2010. “Explaining the Deterrence Effect of Human Rights Prosecutions for Transitional Countries.” International Studies Quarterly 54, 4: 939–63.   

Kritz, N.J. 1996. Coming to terms with atrocities: A review of accountability mechanisms for mass violations of human rights. Law and Contemporary Problems 59, no. 4: 127–52.

Kritz, Neil J. 2009. “Policy Implications of Empirical Research on Transitional Justice.” In Assessing the Impact of Transitional Justice. Challenges for Empirical Research, edited by Hugo van der Merwe, Victoria Baxter, and Audrey R. Chapman, 13–22. Washington DC: USIP.

Kritz, Neil J., ed. 1995. Transitional Justice: How Emerging Democracies Reckon with Former Regimes. Vol. I– III. Washington: U.S. Institute of Peace.

Kritz, Neil J. 2004. “Dealing with the Legacy of Past Abuse: An Overview of the Options and Their Relationship to the Promotion of Peace,” in Bleeker, M. and Sisson, J., eds. Dealing with the Past: Critical Issues, Lessons Learned, and Challenges for Future Swiss Policy. Bern: Swisspeace, 15–32.

Krüger, Anne K. „From Truth to Reconciliation: The Global Diffusion of Truth Commissions.“ In Reconciliation, Civil Society, and the Politics of Memory: Transnational Initiatives in the 20th and 21st Century, edited by Schwelling Birgit, 339-68.

Lambourne, Wendy (2009) ‘Transitional Justice and Peacebuilding after Mass violence’. International Journal of Transitional Justice 3:28-48.

Leebaw, Bronwyn Anne. 2008. “The Irreconcilable Goals of Transitional Justice.” Human Rights Quarterly 30, 1: 95–118.   

Linz, Juan J. 1975. „Totalitarian and Authoritarian Regimes.“ In Handbook of Political Sdence, Vol. 3, eds. Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. 175-411.

Lynch, Moira, and Bridget Marchesi. 2015. „The Adoption and Impact of Transitional Justice.“ In Post­ Communist Transitional Justice: Lessons From Twenty-Five Years of Experience, eds. Lavinia Stan and Nadya Nedelsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 73-96.

Magarrell, Lisa. 2003. “Reparations for Massive or Widespread Human Rights Violations: Sorting out Claims for Reparations and the Struggle for Social Justice.” Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice 22: 85–98.

Maier, Charles. 2000. “Doing History, Doing Justice: The Historian and the Truth Commission,” in Rotberg, Robert I. and Thompson, Dennis, eds. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 261–78.

Mani, Rama (2002) Beyond Retribution: Seeking Justice in the Shadows of War. Polity, Cambridge.

McEvoy, Keiran (2008) ‘Letting Go of Legalism: Developing a “Thicker” Version of Transitional Justice’, in Transitional Justice from Below: Grassroots Activism and the Struggle for Change, ed. Keiran McEvoy and Lorna McGregor. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 15–45.

McEvoy, Kieran (2007) “Beyond Legalism: Towards a Thicker Understanding of Transitional Justice‘,34(4) Journal of Law and Society 34(4):411 – 440.

Mendeloff, David. 2004. “Truth-Seeking, Truth-Telling, and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Curb the Enthusiasm?” International Studies Review 6 (3): 355–80.

Mihai, Mihaela. 2016. Negative Emotions and Transitional Justice. New York: Columbia University Press.

Minow, Martha (1998) Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston: Beacon Press. 

Mutua, Makau  (2015) “What is the Future of Transitional Justice?,” International Journal of Transitional Justice 9, no. 1: 1–9. 

Nalepa, Monika. 2009. „Lustration and the Survival of Parliamentary Parties.“ Taiwan Journal of Democracy 5(2): 45-68.

Nalepa, Monika. 2012. „Tolerating Mistakes How Do Popular Perceptions of Procedural Fairness Affect Demand for Transitional Justice?“ Journal of Conflict Resolution 56(3): 490-515.

Nalepa, Monika. 2015. „The Institutional  Context of Transitional  Justice.“ In  Routledge Handbook of Comparative Political Institutions, eds. Jennifer Gandhi and Ruben Ruiz-Rufino. Oxford: Routledge. 389-403.

Nalepa, Monika. 2008. “To Punish the Guilty and Protect the Innocent: Comparing Truth Revelation Procedures.” The Journal of Theoretical Politics 20, 2: 224–5.   

Nalepa, Monika. 2013. “Lustration,” in Stan, Lavinia and Nedelsky, Nadya, eds. Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press, Vol. 1: 46–51.

Nobles, M (2008) The Politics of Official Apologies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

Nouwen, Sarah and Wouter Werner (2015) ‚Monopolizing Global Justice: International Criminal Law as Challenge to Human Diversity‘, 13(1) Journal of International Criminal Justice.

Offe, Claus,and Ulrike Poppe. 2005. „Transitional Justice After the Breakdown of the German Democratic Republic.“ In Rethinking the Rule of Law After Communism, eds. Adam Czarnota, Martin Krygier and Wojciech Sadurski. Budapest: Central European University Press. 153-189.

Offe, Claus. 1992. „Coming to Terms With Past Injustices:‘ European Journal of Sociology 33(1): 195-201.

OHCHR (2009) OHCHR’s Rule-of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: National Consultations on Transitional Justice. New York and Geneva: United Nations.

Olsen, Tricia D, Leigh A Payne, and Andrew G Reiter. 2010. „The Justice Balance: When Transitional Justice Improves Human Rights and Democracy.“ Human Rights Quarterly 32(4): 980-1007. (Cé (add note to Zotero): some think truth commissions have negative impact on HR, some think it is positive or TCs are non-effective, see Bakiner 2018, 161)

Olsen, Tricia, Payne, Leigh, and Reiter, Andrew. 2010. Transitional Justice in Balance: Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Payne, Leigh A. 2008. Unsettling Accounts: Neither Truth nor Reconciliation in Confessions of State Violence. Durham: Duke University Press.

Pettai, Eva-Clarita. 2015. “Interactions Between History and Memory: Historical Truth Commissions and Reconciliation.” In The Ashgate Research Companion to Memory Studies, edited by Siobhan Kattago, 237–50. Ashgate Research Companions. Farnham: Ashgate.

Phelps, T.G. (2004) Shattered Voices: Language, Violence and the Work of Truth Commissions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Ramírez-Barat, Clara (2014) ‘Transitional Justice and the Public Sphere’, in Transitional Justice, Culture and Society: Beyond Outreach, ed. Clara Ramírez-Barat. New York: Social Science Research Council, 26–45.

Ramírez-Barat, Clara and Duthie, Roger. 2016. “Education and Transitional Justice: Opportunities and Challenges for Peacebuilding.” International Center for Transitional Justice, November 16.

Rangelov, Iavor and Ruti Teitel „Transitional Justice.“ The Handbook of Global Security Policy, edited by Mary Kaldor, and Iavor Rangelov, 338-52. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

Ross, Marc Howard. 2013. “The Politics of Memory and Peacebuilding.” In Routledge Handbook of Peacebuilding, edited by Roger Mac Ginty, 91–101. London and New York: Routledge.

Rotberg, Robert I., and Dennis Frank Thompson, eds. 2000. Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. University Center for Human Values Series. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Sandoval, Clara (2011) “Transitional Justice: Key Concepts, Processes and Challenges”, I.DCR, Knowledge for governing the world BP 07/11.

Sarkin, Jeremy and Erin Daly (2004) “Too Many Questions, Too Few Answers: Reconciliation in Transitional Societies”, 35(3) Columbia Human Rights Law Review.

Sikkink, Kathryn (2011) The Justice Cascade: How Human Rights Prosecutions Are Changing World Politics. New York: Norton.

Sullivan, D., and L. Tifft. 2006. Handbook of restorative justice: A global perspective. London: Psychology Press.

Teitel, Ruti G. 2000. Transitional Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Teitel, Ruti G. 2003. “Transitional Justice Genealogy.“ Harvard Human Rights Journal 16:69-94.

Thoms, Oskar NT, James Ron, and Roland Paris.  2010.  „State-Level  Effects  of  Transitional  Justice: What Do We Know?“. International Journal of Transitional Justice 4: 329-354.

Thoms, Oskar, James Ron, and Roland Paris. 2008. “The Effects of Transitional Justice Mechanisms: A Summary of Empirical Research Findings and Implications for Analysts and Practitioners.” CIPS Working Paper.

Tismaneanu, Vladimir and Iacob, Bogdan, eds.(2015) Remembrance, History and Justice: Coming to Terms with Traumatic Pasts in Democratic Societies. Budapest: Central European University Press.

Transitional Justice Database Project, available at: (accessed 24.10.2018)

Tucker, Aviezer. 2006a. „Paranoids May Be Persecuted: Post-Totalitarian Transitional Justice.“In Retribution and Reparation in the Transition to Democracy, ed. Jon Elster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 181-205.

Tucker, Aviezer. 2006b. „Rough Justice: Rectification in Post-Authoritarian and Post-Totalitarian Regimes.“ In Retribution and Reparation in the Transition to Democracy, ed. Jon Elster. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 276-298.

Tucker, Aviezer. 2015. The Legacies of Totalitarianism: A Theoretical Framework. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

UN Doc. S/2004/616, Report of the Secretary-General on the Rule of Law and Transitional Justice in Conflict and Post-Conflict Societies (3 August 2004).

Walker, Margaret Urban (2010) “Truth Telling as Reparations,” Metaphilosophy 41:4 (July 2010): 525-545.

Wallenstein, Peter, Melander, Erik and Högbladh, Stina (2013) “Peace agreements, justice and durable peace” in Karin Aggestam and Annika Björkdahl (eds) Rethinking Peacebuilding: The quest for just peace in the Middle East and the Western Balkans. London and New York: Routledge. pp 125-139.

Wiebelhaus-Brahm, Eric. 2009. Truth Commissions and Transitional Societies: The Impact on Human Rights and Democracy. New York: Routledge.

Wilson, R. A. (2001) The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Legitimizing the Post-Apartheid State. Cambridge UP.

Yoder, Jennifer A. “Truth without Reconciliation: An Appraisal of the Enquete Commission on the SED Dictatorship in Germany.” German Politics 8, no. 3 (December 1999): 59–80.

11    Ethical issues/methods of history/memory research in a conflict/post-conflict context

Agamben, Giorgio. ‘The Witness’ In Violence in War and Peace: an Anthology. Nancy Scheper-Hughes and Philippe Bourgois (Eds.) Blackwell 2004, 437-442.

Browning, Christopher, “German Memory, Judicial Interrogation, and Historical Reconstruction. Writing Perpetrator History from Postwar Testimony” in Friedlander, Saul, (eds.) Probing the limits of representation: Nazism and the „final solution“, Cambridge, Harvard UP, 1992, 22-36.

Heathershaw, John (2008)’Seeing Like the International Community: How Peacebuilding Failed (and Survived) in Tajikistan‘, 2(3) Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding.

Hirsch, Marianne, “Nazi Photographs in Post-Holocaust Art: Gender as an Idiom of Memorialization” in Crimes of War: Guilt and Denial in the Twentieth Century, eds. Omer Bartov, Atina Grossmann, and Mary Nolan, New York: The New Press, 2002, 100-120.

Hirsch, Marianne, Family Frames. Photography, Narrative and Postmemory. Harvard UP, 2002, 241-268.

Hirsch, Marianne, Spitzer, Leo, “Incongruous Images: “Before, During and After”: The Holocaust” in History and Theory 48, 2009: 9-25.

Judith Keilbach, “Photographs, Symbolic Images, and the Holocaust: On the (Im)Possibility of Depicting Historical Truth” in History and Theory 47, 2009: 54-76.

Nouwen, Sarah ‚‘As You Set out for Ithaka’: Practical, Epistemological, Ethical, and Existential Questions About Socio-Legal Empirical Research in Conflict‘, 27(1) Leiden Journal of International Law (2014)

Phelps, Teresa Godwin. “What can stories do?” and “Telling Stories in a search for more than truth” in Shattered Voices: Language, Violence, and the Work of Truth Commissions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004. 53-72.

Struk, Janina, “Images of Women in Holocaust Photography” in Feminist Review 88, 2008: 111-121.

Swanson, Gillian, “Memory, Subjectivity and Intimacy: the Historical Transformation of the Modern Self and the Writing of Female Autobiography” in Memory and Methodology, ed. Susannah Radstone, Oxford: Berg, 2000, 111-132.

Veena Das. “The Act of Witnessing: violence, poisonous knowledge and subjectivity.” in Das, V. et. al., Ed. Violence and Subjectivity. Berkeley, University of California Press. 1998, 205-225.

Zelizer, Barbie, Remembering to Forget: Holocaust Memory through the Camera Eye, Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1998, 141-175, chapters 5-6.

Zemel, Carol, “Emblems of Atrocity. Holocaust Liberation Photographs” in Image and Remembrance: Representation and the Holocaust. Eds. Hornstein, Shelly, Florence Jacobowitz, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 2003, 201-219.

12     Memory and history in Central and Eastern Europe

Antohi S., B. Trencsényi and P. Apor, eds (2007) Narratives Unbound: Historical Studies in Post-Communist Eastern Europe. Budapest: CEU Press.

Bernhard, Michael and Kubik, Jan. 2014. “A Theory of the Politics of Memory,” in Kubik, Jan and Bernhard, Michael H., eds. Twenty Years after Communism: The Politics of Memory and Commemoration. New York: Oxford University Press, 7–33.   

Blacker, Uilleam, and Alexander Etkind. 2013. “Introduction.” In Memory and Theory in Eastern Europe. Palgrave Studies in Cultural and Intellectual History, edited by Uilleam Blacker, Alexander Etkind, and Julie Fedor, 1–24. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Desbois, Patrick (2008) The Holocaust by Bullets. A Priest’s Journey to Uncover the Truth behind the Murder of 1.5 Million Jews. New York: Palgrave Macmillian.

Finkel, Evgeny. 2010. “In Search of Lost Genocide: Historical Policy and International Politics in Post-1989 Eastern Europe.” Global Society 24, 1: 51–66.   

Gow, James. 2007. “Dark Histories, Brighter Futures: The Balkans and Black Sea Region: European Union Frontiers, War Crimes and Confronting the Past.” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 7, 3: 345–55.   

Gross, Jan Tomasz with Irena Grudzińska-Gross. 2012. Golden Harvest: Events at the Periphery of the Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kubik, Jan, and Michael Bernhard, eds. 2014. Twenty Years after Communism: The Politics of Memory and Commemoration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mälksoo, Maria (2009) The memory politics of becoming European. The East European subalterns and the collective memory of Europe. European Journal of International Relations, 15(4), 653–680.

Michal Kopeček (ed.). Past in the Making: Historical Revisionism in Central Europe after 1989. Budapest; New York: CEU Press, 2008

Mink, Georges and Laure Neumayer (eds), History, Memory and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe. Memory Games. Houndmills and New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

Neumayer, L. (2015) Integrating the Central European past into a common narrative: The mobilizations around the ‘Crimes of Communism’ in the European parliament. Journal of Contemporary European Studies, 23(3), 344–363.

Pakier, Małgorzata, and Joanna Wawrzyniak. 2015. Memory and Change in Europe. Eastern Perspectives. New York: Berghahn Books.

13    Conflict in the post-Soviet space

Baev, Pavel. 2010. “Re-Examining the ’Colour Revolutions“: The Turn of the Tide from Belgrade to Ulan Bator.” In Troubled Regions and Failing States; the Clustering and Contagion of Armed Conflicts, edited by Kristian Berg Harpviken, 249–76. Bingley, UK: Peace Research Institute.

Bakke, Kristin, Andrew M. Linke, John O’Loughlin, and Gerard Toal. 2018. “Dynamics of State-Building after War: External-internal Relations in Eurasian de facto States.” Political Geography 63: 159–173.

Cornell, Svante. 2001. Small Nations and Great Powers. A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus. Caucasus World: Courzon Press.

Hanne, Gottfried. 1998. Der Transnistrien-Konflikt : Ursachen, Entwicklungsbedingungen Und Perspektiven Einer Regulierung. Köln: Bundesinstitut für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien.

IOS. 2017. “’Frozen Conflicts’: Their Political and Academic Relevance.”

Migranian, Andranik. 1994. “Rossiya I Bliznee Zarubezh’e: Stanovlenie Novogo Vneshnepoliticheskogo Kursa RF (‘Russia and the near Abroad: The Genesis of the Foreign Policy Direction of RF’).” Nezavisimaya Gazeta, January 12.

Orbán, Anita. 2008. Power, Energy, and the New Russian Imperialism. PSI Reports. Westport, Conn: Praeger Security International.

Petric, Boris-Mathieu. 2005. “Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan or the Birth of a Globalised Protectorate.” Central Asian Survey 3 (24).

Sasse, Gwendolyn. 2016. “International Linkages and the Dynamics of Conflict: Revisiting the Post-Soviet Conflicts.” East European Politics 32 (3): 289–96. doi:10.1080/21599165.2016.1176560.

Smith, Keith C. 2004. Russian Energy Politics in the Baltics, Poland, and Ukraine: A New Stealth Imperialism? Washington, D.C: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Sussex, Matthew. Conflict in the Former USSR. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Toal, Gerard, and John O’Loughlin. 2016. “Frozen Fragments, Simmering Spaces: The post-Soviet de facto States.” In Questioning post-Soviet, edited by Edward C. Holland and Matthew Derrick, 103–126. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

Trenin, Dmitriĭ. 2011. Post-Imperium: A Eurasian Story. Washington, D.C: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Tudoroiu, Theodor. 2016. “Unfreezing Failed Frozen Conflicts: A Post-Soviet Case Study.” Journal of Contemporary European Studies 24 (3): 375–96. doi:10.1080/14782804.2015.1117968.

14    Memory, identity and history in the post-Soviet space

Brubaker, Rogers. 1994. “Nationhood and the National Question in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Eurasia: An Institutional Account.” Theory and Society 23, 1: 47–78.   

Korostelina, Karina. 2010. “War of Textbooks: History Education in Russia and Ukraine.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 43(2): 129–37.   

Kramer, Mark. 2012. “Archival Policies and Historical Memory in the Post-Soviet Era.” Demokratizatsiya 20, 3: 12–25.

Lehti, M., Jutila, M., and Jokisipilä, M. (2008) Never-ending Second World War: Public performances of national dignity and the drama of the bronze soldier. Journal of Baltic Studies,39(4), 393–418.

Miller AI, Lipman M. The convolutions of historical politics. New York: Central European University Press; 2012

Rohdewald, Stefan (2008) “Post-Soviet Remembrance of the Holocaust and National Memories of the Second World War in Russia, Ukraine and Lithuania.” Forum for Modern Language Studies 44 (2): 173–184.

Tillet, Lowell. 1969. The Great Friendship: Soviet Historians on the Non-Russian Nationalities. Chapel Hill: University of California Press.

Torbakov, I. (2011) History, memory and national identity understanding the politics of history and memory wars in post-Soviet lands. Demokratizatsiya, 19(3), 209–232.

15    Transitional justice in Central and Eastern Europe/Southeastern Europe

Appel, Hilary. 2005. „Anti-Communist Justice and Founding the Post-Communist Order: Lustration and Restitution in Central Europe.“ East European Politics and Societies 19(3): 379-405.

Beattie, Andrew H. 2015. „Post-Communist Truth Commissions:  Between  Transitional  Justice  and  the Politics of History.“In Post-Communist Transitional Justice: Lessons From Twenty-Five Years of Experience, eds. Lavinia Stan and Nadya Nedelsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 213-232.

Blacksell, Mark, and Karl Martin Born. 2002. „Private Property  Restitution:  The  Geographical  Consequences of Official Government Policies in Central and Eastern Europe.“ Geographical Journal 168(2): 178-190.

Brahm, Eric. 2009. “Judging Truth: The Contributions of Truth Commissions in Post-Conflict Environments,” in Shawki, Noha and Cox, Michaelene, eds. Rethinking Sovereignty and Human Rights after the Cold War. Burlington: Ashgate, 119–30.

Calhoun, Noel. 2002. „The Ideological Dilemma of Lustration in Poland.“ East European Politics and Sodeties 16(2): 494-520.

Calhoun, Noel. 2004. Dilemmas of Justice in Eastern Europe Democratic Transitions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Choi,Susanne Y P., and Roman David. 2012. „Lustration Systems and Trust: Evidence from Survey Experiments in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland.“ American Journal of Sociology 117(4): 1172-1201.

Ciobanu, Monica.  2009.  „Criminalising the Past and  Reconstructing Collective Memory: The Romanian Truth Commission.“ Europe-Asia Studies 61(2): 313-336.

Council of Europe. 1996. Measures to Dismantle the Heritage of Former Communist Totalitarian Systems, June 3.

Czarnota, Adam. 2009. „Lustration, Decommunisation and the Rule of Law.“ Hague Journal on the Rule of Law 1(2): 307-336.

David, R. (2015). Transitional Justice and Changing Memories of the Past in Central Europe. Government and Opposition, 50(1), 24-44.

David, Roman. 2011. Lustration and Transitional Justice: Personnel Systems in the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania University Press.

David, Roman. 2012. „Twenty Years of Transitional Justice in the Czech Lands.“ Europe-Asia Studies 64(4): 761-784.

David,Roman, and SusanneY P. Choi. 2006. „Forgiveness and Transitional Justice in the Czech Republic.“ Journal of Conflict Resolution 50(3): 339–367.

Ellis, Mark S. 1997. „Purging the Past: The Current State of Lustration Laws in the Former Communist Bloc.“ Law and Contemporary Problems 59(4): 181-196.

Fischer, Martina, and Ljubinka Petrović-Ziemer, eds. 2013. Dealing with the Past in the Western Balkans: Initiatives for Peacebuilding and Transitional Justice in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Croatia. Berghof-Report 18. Berlin: Berghof-Forschungszentrum für Konstruktive Konfliktbearbeitung.

Garton Ash,Timothy. 2002. „Trials, Purges and History Lessons: Treating a Difficult Past in Post-Communist Europe.“ In Memory and Power in Post-War Europe. Studies in the Presence of the Past,ed. Jan-Werner Muller. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 265-282.

Gledhill, John. 2011. „Integrating the Past: Regional Integration and Historical Reckoning in Central and Eastern Europe.“ Nationalities Papers 39(4): 481-506.

Grodsky, Brian K. 2009. „Beyond Lustration Truth-Seeking Efforts in the Post-Communist Space.“ Taiwan Journal of Democracy 5(2): 21-43.

Grodsky, Brian. 2008. “Justice without Transition: Truth Commissions in the Context of Repressive Rule.” Human Rights Review 9, 3: 281–97.   

Haughton, Tim. 2013. „Battlefields, Ammunition and Uniforms: The Past and Politics in Post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe.“ Comparative European Politics 11(2): 249-260.

Horne, Cynthia M. 2009. „Late Lustration Programmes in Romania and Poland: Supporting or Undermining Democratic Transitions?“. Democratization 16(2): 344-376.

Horne, Cynthia M. 2012. „Assessing the Impact of Lustration on Trust in Public Institutions and National Government in Central and Eastern Europe:‘ Comparative Political Studies 45(4): 412-446.

Horne, Cynthia M. 2015. „The Timing of Transitional Justice Measures.“ In Post-Communist Transitional Justice: Lessons From Twenty-Five Years of Experience, eds. Lavinia Stan and Nadya Nedelsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 123-147.

Horne, Cynthia M. 2009. “International Legal Rulings on Lustration Policies in Central and Eastern Europe: Rule of Law in Historical Context.” Law and Social Inquiry 34, 3: 713–44.   

Horne, Cynthia M. 2015. “Silent Lustration: Public Disclosures as Informal Lustration Mechanisms in Bulgaria and Romania.” Problems of Post-Communism 62, 3: 131–44.   

Horne, Cynthia M. 2017. Building Trust and Democracy: Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.   

Ingrao, Charles W., and Thomas Allan Emmert, eds. 2013. Confronting the Yugoslav Controversies: A Scholars’ Initiative. 2nd ed. Central European Studies. Washington, D.C. : West Lafayette, Ind: United States Institute of Peace Press ; Purdue University Press.

Kim, Dae Soon, and Nigel Swain. 2015. „Party Politics, Political Competition and Coming to Terms with the Past in Post-Communist Hungary.“ Europe-Asia Studies 67(9): 1445-1468.

Kiss, Csilla. 2006. “The Misuses of Manipulation: The Failure of Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Hungary.” Europe-Asia Studies 58, 6: 925–40.

Kitschelt, Herbert. 1995. „Formation of Party Cleavages in Post-Communist Democracies.“ Party Politics 1(4): 447-472.

Kuti, Csongor. 2009. Post-Communist Restitution and the Rule of Law. Budapest: Central European University Press.

Letki, Natalia. 2002. „Lustration and Democratisation in East-Central Europe.“ Europe-Asia Studies 54(4): 529-552.

Malksoo, Maria. 2014. „Criminalizing Communism: Transnational Mnemopolitics in Europe.“ International Political Sociology 8(1): 82-99.

Mark, James. 2010. “What Remains? Anti-Communism, Forensic Archeology, and the Retelling of the National Past in Lithuania and Romania.” Past and Present Supplement 5: 276–300.

McDermott, Kevin, and Matthew Stibbe. 2015. De-Stalinising Eastern Europe: The Rehabilitation of Stalin Victims After 1953. London, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Meernik, James. 2005. “Justice and Peace? How the International Criminal Tribunal Affects Societal Peace in Bosnia.” Journal of Peace Research 42 (3): 271–89. doi:10.1177/0022343305052012.

Michnik, Adam and Havel, Václav. 1993. “Justice or Revenge.” Journal of Democracy 4, 1: 20–7.   

Mink, Georges. 2013. „Institutions of National Memory  in  Post-Communist  Europe: From  Transitional Justice to Political Uses of Biographies (1989-2010).“ In History, Memory and Politics in Central and East­ ern Europe: Memory Games, eds. Georges Mink and Laure Neumayer. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 155-170.

Montero, Carlos Closa, ed. (2009) How the Memory of Crimes Committed by Totalitarian and/or Other Repressive Regimes in Europe Is Dealt With. Brussels: European Commission, Directorate General for Justice, Freedom and security, Direction D: Fundamental rights and citizenship.

Moran, John. 1994. “The Communist Tortures of Eastern Europe: Prosecute and Punish or Forgive and Forget?” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 27, 1: 95–109.

Nalepa, Monika. 2010. Skeletons in the Closet: Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.   

Nedelsky, Nadya. 2004. „Divergent Responses to a Common Past: Transitional Justice in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.“ Theory and Society 33(1): 65-115.

Neumayer, Laure. 2015. „Integrating the Central European Past into a Common Narrative: The Mobilizations around the ‚Crimes of Communism‘ in the European Parliament.“ Journal of Contemporary European Studies 23(3): 344-363.

Obradovic-Wochnik, Jelena. 2013. „The ‚Silent Dilemma‘ of Transitional Justice: Silencing and Coming to Terms With the Past in Serbia.“ The International Journal of Transitional Justice, 7(2): 328-347.

Orentlicher, Diane. 2008. “Shrinking the Space for Denial: The Impact of the ICTY in Serbia.” Report/White Paper. New York: Open Society Institute.

Ostojic, Mladen. 2014. Between Justice and Stability. The Politics of War-Crime Prosecutions in Post-Milosevic Serbia. Farnham: Ashgate.

Raimundo, Filipa. 2013.  „Dealing With  the Past in  Central  and Southern European  Democracies: Comparing Spain and Poland.“ In History, Memory and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe,eds. Georges Mink and Laure Neumayer. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 136-154.

Rozic, Peter, and Brian Grodsky. 2015. „Transitional Justice in Central and Eastern Europe.“ In Central and East European Politics: From Communism to Democracy, eds. Sharon L. Wolchik and Jane Leftwich Curry. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. 169-188.

Sadurski, Wojciech. 2005. „‚De-Communization‘,’Lustration‘ and Constitutional Continuity: Dilemmas of Transitional Justice in Central Europe.“ Paper presented at the EUI Working Paper LAW 15, 2005, Florence.

Schroeder,Friedrich-Christian and Herbert Kupper, eds. 2010.  Die rechtliche Aufarbeitung  der kommunistischen Vergangenheit in Osteuropa [Legal reckoning with the communist past in Eastern Europe]. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Spoerri, Marlene. 2011. „Justice Imposed: How Policies of Conditionality Effect Transitional Justice in the Former Yugoslavia.“ Europe-Asia Studies, 63(10): 1827-1851.

Stan, Lavinia, and Nadya Nedelsky, eds. 2015. Post-Communist Transitional Justice: Lessons From Twenty-Five Years of  Experience. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Stan, Lavinia. 2009 „Truth Commissions in Post-Communism: The Overlooked Solution?“ Open Political Science Journal 2: 1-13.

Stan,Lavinia. 2013. Transitional Justice in Post-Communist Romania. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Subotic, Jelena. 2015. „Out of Eastern Europe Legacies of Violence and the Challenge of Multiple Transitions.“ East European Politics and Societies 29(2): 409-419.

Szczerbiak, Aleks (2002) “Dealing with the Communist Past or the Politics of the Present? Lustration in PostCommunist Poland”  Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 54, No. 4, 553-572

Szczerbiak, Aleks. 2015. „Explaining Late Lustration Programs: Lessons From the Polish Case.“ In Post­ Communist Transitional Justice: Lessons From Twenty-Five Years of Experience, eds. Nadya Nedelsky and Lavinia Stan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 51-70.

Tarnm,Marek. 2013. „In Search of Lost Time: Memory Politics in Estonia, 1991-2011.“ Nationalities Papers 41(4): 651-674.

Welsh, Helga A. 1996. “Dealing with the Communist Past: Central and East European Experiences After 1990.“ Europe-Asia Studies 48(3): 413-428.

Williams, Kieran, Brigid Fowler, and Aleks Szczerbiak. 2005. „Explaining Lustration in Central Europe: A ‚Post-Communist Politics‘ Approach.“ Democratization 12(1): 22-43.   ·

16    Transitional justice in the post-Soviet space

Conquest, Robert. 2008. The Great Terror: A Reassessment. New York: Oxford University Press.

Grodsky, Brian. „Human Rights Activists and Transitional Justice in the Post-communist World: Explaining Silence among the Outspoken.“ Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 14, no. 1 (2014): 1-21.

Horne, C. (2018). Introduction. In C. Horne and L. Stan (Eds.), Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union: Reviewing the Past, Looking toward the Future (pp. 1-16). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Horne, Cynthia and Lavinia Stan, eds. 2018. Transitional justice and the former Soviet Union: reviewing the past, looking toward the future. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pettai, Eva-Clarita. 2015. „Negotiating History for Reconciliation: A Comparative Evaluation of the Baltic Presidential Commissions.“ Europe-Asia Studies 67(7): 1079-1101.

Pettai, Eva-Clarita and Pettai, Vello. 2014. Transitional and Retrospective Justice in the Baltic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 Pettai, Eva-Clarita. 2016. “Prosecuting Soviet Genocide: Comparing the Politics of Criminal Justice in the Baltic States.” European Politics and Society 18, 1: 52–65.  

Plakans, Andrejs. 2014. “The Commission of Historians in Latvia: 1999 to the Present.” Journal of Baltic Studies. Published online 8 August: 1–18.   

Stan, L. (2018). Limited Reckoning in the Former Soviet Union. In C. Horne and L. Stan (Eds.), Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union: Reviewing the Past, Looking toward the Future(pp. 19-44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stan, Lavinia, and Nadya Nedelsky, eds. 2013. Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Stan, Lavinia. 2009. Transitional Justice in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Reckoning With the Communist Past. London: Routledge.

Stan, Lavinia. 2009. “The Former Soviet Union.” in Stan, Lavinia, ed. Transitional Justice in Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. London: Routledge, 227–30.

Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union. (2018). In C. Horne and L. Stan (Eds.), Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union: Reviewing the Past, Looking toward the Future(pp. I-Ii). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

17    Civil society/transition in the post-Soviet space/Eastern Central Europe 

Bozoki, Andras, ed. (1999) Intellectuals and Politics in Central Europe. Budapest: Central European University Press.

Celichowski, Jerzy. 2007. “Civil Societies in Post-Communist Europe: The Challenges Posed by Isolation.” In The Civicus Global Survey of the State of Civil Society, edited by Finn Heinrich and Lorenzo Fioramonti, 143–61. Bloomfield: Civicus: Kumarian Press.

Ekiert, Grzegorz, and Jan Kubik. “The Legacies of 1989: Myths and Realities of Civil Society.” Journal of Democracy 25.1 (2014): 46–58.

Ekiert, Grzegorz, and Roberto Foa. Civil Society Weakness in Post-Communist Europe: A Preliminary Assessment. Carlo Alberto Notebooks No. 198. Collegio Carlo Alberto: 2011.

Fischer, Martina, ed. 2007. Peacebuilding and Civil Society in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Ten Years after Dayton. 2. ed. Berlin: Lit.

Fischer, Sabine, and Heiko Pleines, eds. 2010. Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe. Changing Europe 7. Stuttgart: ibidem-Verl.

Howard, Marc Morje. “The Weakness of Postcommunist Civil Society.” Journal of Democracy 13.1 (2002): 157–69.

Howard, Marc Morjé. 2003. The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe. Cambridge, U.K. ; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Humphrey, Michael. „Victims, Civil Society and Transitional Justice in Bosnia and Herzegovina.“ Temida 15, no. 1 (2012): 59-75.

Jacobsson, Kerstin, ed. Urban Grassroots Movements in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge, 2015.

Laclau, Ernesto, and Chantal Mouffe. 2001. Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics. 2nd ed. London ; New York: Verso.

Levitsky, Steven, and Lucan Way. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. Problems of International Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Magner, Michael. 2005. “Civil Society in Poland after 1989: A Legacy of Socialism?” Canadian Slavonic Papers 47 (1-2): 49–69. doi:10.1080/00085006.2005.11092377.

May, R.A. and A.K. Milton, eds. 2005. (Un)civil societies: Human rights and democratic transitions in Eastern Europe and Latin America. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Meyer, Michael et al. “Patterns in Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe: A Synthesis of 16 Country Reports and an Expert Survey.” In Civil Society in Central and Eastern Europe: Challenges and Opportunities, edited by Peter Vandor et al., 12–42. Vienna: ERSTE Foundation, 2017.

Pop-Eleches, G., and J. A. Tucker. 2013. “Associated with the Past?: Communist Legacies and Civic Participation in Post-Communist Countries.” East European Politics and Societies 27 (1): 45–68. doi:10.1177/0888325412465087.

Rose, R. (2009), Understanding Post-Communist Transformation: Bottom Up Approach (New York: Routledge).

Stewart, Susan. 2012. Presidents, Oligarchs and Bureaucrats: Forms of Rule in the Post-Soviet Space. Farnam: Ashgate.

Wallace, Claire, Florian Pichler and Christian Haerpfer. “Changing Patterns of Civil Society in Europe and America 1995–2005: Is Eastern Europe Different?” East European Politics and Societies 26.1 (2012): 3–19.

Wilson, Andrew. 2005. Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World. 1st ed. New Haven: Yale University Press.

18    Ukraine

18.1  Conflict in Ukraine

Averre, Derek. 2016. “The Ukraine Conflict: Russia’s Challenge to European Security Governance.” Europe-Asia Studies 68 (4): 699–725. doi:10.1080/09668136.2016.1176993.

Bertelsen, Olga, ed.(2016) Revolution and War in Contemporary Ukraine: The Challenge of Change. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag.

Desai, Radhika, Alan Freeman, and Boris Kagarlitsky. „The Conflict in Ukraine and Contemporary Imperialism.“ International Critical Thought 6, no. 4 (2016): 489-512.

Douglas Irvin-Erickson. „Genocide Discourses: American and Russian Strategic Narratives of Conflict in Iraq and Ukraine.“ Politics and Governance 5, no. 3 (2017): 130-45.

Grant, Thomas D. Aggression against Ukraine : Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. American Foreign Policy in the 21st Century. New York, NY : Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

Hahn, Gordon M. Ukraine over the Edge : Russia, the West and the „new Cold War“. Jefferson : McFarland, 2018.

Himka, John-Paul, -. „The History behind the Regional Conflict in Ukraine.“ Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 16, no. 1 (2015): 129-36.

International Crisis Group. Ukraine.

Mandel, David. „The Conflict in Ukraine.“ Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe 24, no. 1 (2016): 83-88.

Matveeva, Anna. Through times of Trouble : Conflict in Southeastern Ukraine Explained from within. Russian, Eurasian, and Eastern European Politics. Lanham, MD : Lexington Books, 2018.

Pieniążek, Paweł, John Markoff, and Małgorzata Snyder. Greetings from Novorossiya : Eyewitness to the War in Ukraine. Pitt Series in Russian and East European Studies. Pittsburgh : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2017.

Rosefielde, Steven. The Kremlin Strikes Back : Russia and the West after Crimea’s Annexation. New York, NY : Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Strasheim, Julia. „Power-sharing, Commitment Problems, and Armed Conflict in Ukraine.“ Civil Wars 18, no. 1 (2016): 1-20.

Wade, Robert H. „Reinterpreting the Ukraine Conflict: The Drive for Ethnic Subordination and Existential Enemies.“ Challenge 58, no. 4 (2015): 361-71.

Wood, Elizabeth A, E. Wayne Merry, William E. Pomeranz, and Maxim Trudolyubov. Roots of Russia’s War in Ukraine. Washington, D.C : Woodrow Wilson Center Press ; New York : Columbia University Press, 2016.

18.2  Memory, history, identities and conflict in Ukraine

Dietsch, Johan. 2006. Making Sense of Suffering: Holocaust and Holodomor in Ukrainian Historical Culture. Lund: Lund University.

Graziosi, Andrea. 2008. “The Soviet 1931–1932 Famines and the Ukrainian Holodomor: Is a New Interpretation Possible, and What Would Its Consequences Be?,” in Hryn, Halyna, ed.Hunger by Design: The Great Ukrainian Famine and Its Soviet Context. Cambridge: Harvard University, 1–19.

Grynevych, Liudmyla. 2008. “The Present State of Ukrainian Historiography on the Holodomor and Prospects for Its Development.” Harriman Review 16, 2: 10–20.

Himka, John-Paul (2006) “The Basic Historical Identity Formations in Ukraine: A Typology,” Harvard Ukrainian Studies 28, no. 1-4: 483-500

Himka, John-Paul (2015) Legislating Historical Truth: Ukraine’s Laws of 9 April 2015.

Hrytsak, Yaroslav. 2011. “Holokost i Holodomor: vyklyky kolektyvnoii pam’iati.” Krytyka 1–2: 14–16.

Hrytsak, Yaroslav. 2011. “Istoriia i pam’iat’: Amneziia, Ambiwalentsia, Aktyvizatsia.” In Ukraina. Protsesy natsiotvorennia, edited by Andreas Kappeler, 365–380. Kyiv: K.I.S.

Janmaat, Jan. 2006. “History and National Identity Construction: The Great Famine in Irish and Ukrainian History Textbooks.” History of Education 35, 3: 345–68.   

Janmaat, Jan. 2007. “The ‘Ethnic Other’ in Ukrainian History Textbooks: The Case of Russia and the Russians.” Compare: A Journal of Comparative Education 37, 3: 307–24.   

Kasianov, Georgiy and Philipp Ther (eds). A Laboratory of Transnational History. Ukraine and

Kasianov, Georgiy. “Holodomor and Nation-Building,” Pro et contra 13, no.3/4 (2009): 24-42

Kasianov, Georgiy. “Revisiting the Great Famine of 1932-1933: Politics of Memory and Public

Consciousness (Ukraine after 1991),” in Michal Kopeček (ed.). Past in the Making: Historical Revisionism in Central Europe after 1989. Budapest; New York: CEU Press, 2008, pp.197-219

Kasianov, Heorhiy. 2010. “The Great Famine of 1932-33 (Holodomor) and the Politics of History in Contemporary Ukraine,” in Troebst, Stefan, ed. Postdiktatorische Geschichtskulturen im Süden und Osten Europas: Bestandsaufnahme und Forschungsperspektiven. Göttingen: Wallstein, 619–41.

Kasianov, Heorhiy. 2010. Danse Macabre. Holod 1932–1933 Rokiv u Politytsi, Masovii Svidomosti ta Istoriohrafii (1980-ti–Pochatok 2000-kh). Kyiv: Nash Chas.

Klymenko, Lina. 2016. “The Holodomor Law and National Trauma Construction in Ukraine.” Canadian Slavonic Papers 58, 4: 341–61.   

Kohut, Zenon. History as a Battleground: Russian-Ukrainian Relations and Historical Consciousness in Contemporary Ukraine. Saskatchewan, 2001.

Korostelina, Karina V. „Conflict of National Narratives of Ukraine: Euromaidan and Beyond.“ Die Friedens-Warte 89, no. 1/2 (2014): 269-90.

Korostelina, Karina. 2011. “Shaping Unpredictable Past: National Identity and History Education in Ukraine.” National Identities 13, 1: 3–4.   

Korostelina, Karina. 2013. “Constructing Nation: National Narratives of History Teachers in Ukraine.” National Identities 15, 4: 401–16.   

Marples, David (2008) Heroes and Villains. Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. Budapest: Central European University Press.

Narvselius, Eleonora, and Niklas Bernsand. 2014. “L’viv and Chernivtsi: Two Memory Cultures at the Western Ukrainian Borderland.” East/West: Journal of Ukrainian Studies 1 (1): 59–83.

Plokhy, Serhii. Ukraine and Russia: Representations of the Past. Toronto: University of Toronto

Popson, Nancy (2001) “The Ukrainian History Textbook: Introducing Children to the ‘Ukrainian Nation’.” Nationalities Papers 29 (2): 325–350.

Popson, Nancy. 2001. “The Ukrainian History Textbook: Introducing Children to the ‘Ukrainian Nation’.” Nationalities Papers 29, 2: 325–50.

Portnov, Andrii. Memory Wars in Post-Soviet Ukraine (1991–2010). In Blacker U, editor. Memory and theory in Eastern Europe. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; 2013.

Portnov, Andriy. 2013. Istorii dla domashnioho vzhytku. Esei pro pol’sko-rosiis’ko-ukrains’kyi trykutnyk pamiati. Kyiv: Krytyka.

Rasevych, Vasyl (2009) “Polityka pam’iati i podolannia mizhnatsionalnykh stereotypiv v suchasnii Ukraini.” In Istorychni mify i stereotypy ta mizhnatsional’ni vidnosyny v suchasnii Ukraiini, edited by Leonid Zashkilniak, 53–71. Lviv: Instytut Ukrainoznavstva im. I. Kryp’iakevycha NAN Ukrainy.

Richardson, Tanya (2004) “Disciplining the Past in Post-Soviet Ukraine: Memory and History in Schools and Families.” In Politics, Religion and Memory: The Past Meets the Present in Contemporary Europe, edited by Frances Pine, Deema Kaneff, and Haldis Haukanes, 109–135. Munster: Lit.

Rodgers, Peter (2006) “Regionalism and the Politics of Identity: A View from Ukraine’s Eastern Borderlands.” In Borderland Identities: Territory and Belonging in North, Central and East Europe, edited by Madeleine Hurd, 163–194. Eslöv: Forlags ab Gondolin.

Rodgers, Peter W. 2007. “‘Compliance or Contradiction’? Teaching ‘History’ in the ‘New’ Ukraine. A View from Ukraine’s Eastern Borderlands.” Europe-Asia Studies 59, 3: 503–19.

Ruda, Oksana (2009) “Do dzherel mifolohizatsii ukrains’ko-pols’kykh vidnosyn.” In Istorychni mify i stereotypy ta mizhnatsionalni vidnosyny v suchasnii Ukraiini, edited by Leonid Zashkilniak, 289–333. Lviv: Instytut Ukrainoznavstva im. I. Kryp’iakevycha NAN Ukrainy.

Rudling, P., Amar, T., and McBride, J. (2016, June 15). Ukraine’s struggle with the past is ours too. openDemocracy.

Wilson, Andrew. 1998. “Redefining Ethnic and Linguistic Boundaries in Ukraine: Indigenes, Settlers and Russophone Ukrainians.” In Nation-building in the Post-Soviet Borderlands, edited by Graham Smith, Vivien Law, Andrew Wilson, Annette Bohr and Edward Allworth, 119–138. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wylegała, Anna (2017) “Managing the difficult past: Ukrainian collective memory and public debates on history”, Nationalities Papers, Volume 45, 2017 – Issue 5

Zashkilniak, Leonid (2009) “Istoriia svoia i istoriia chuzha.” Krytyka 9–10: 24–26.

Zhurzhenko, Tatiana (2013) “Memory Wars and Reconciliation in the Ukrainian-Polish Borderlands: Geopolitics of Memory from a Local Perspective.” In Memory and Politics in Central and Eastern Europe: Memory Games, edited by Georges Mink, and Laure Neumayer, 173–192. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

18.3  World War II and history/memory in Ukraine

Finder, Gabriel N., and Alexander V. Prusin (2004) “Collaboration in Eastern Galicia: The Ukrainian Police and the Holocaust.” East European Jewish Affairs 34 (2): 95–118.

Grinchenko, Gelinada, and Marta Olynyk. 2012. “The Ostarbeiter of Nazi Germany in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukrainian Historical Memory.” Canadian Slavonic Papers 54 (4): 401–426.

Grinevich, Vladyslav. “History of the World War Two in Contemporary Ukrainian Historiography and Political Struggle,” Ukrains’kyi humanitarnyi ohliad 11 (2005): 9-29.

Grinevich, Vladyslav. “Splitted Memory: World War Two in the Consciousness of Ukrainian Society,” Neprikosnovennyi zapas. Debaty o politike i kul’ture 40-41 (2005): 218-27.

Grinevich, Vladyslav. “The Myth of War and the War of Myths: The Second World War in Mind of Ukrainian Society,” Politics, History and Collective Memory in East Central Europe. Hamburg: Krämer, 2012, pp. 283-291.

Himka, John-Paul. 2011. “The Lviv Pogrom of 1941: The Germans, Ukrainian Nationalists, and the Carnival Crowd.” Canadian Slavonic Papers 53 (2–4): 209–243.

Himka, John-Paul. 2013. “The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Ukraine.” In Bringing the Dark Past to Light: The Reception of the Holocaust in Postcommunist Europe, edited by Joanna Michlic and John-Paul Himka, 627–661. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Hrytsak, Yaroslav. More Wrong than Right: Recent Turns in Ukrainian Politics of Memory, Speech delivered at the Academy of Sciences of Vienna (October 28, 2010)

Iliushyn, Oleh (2009) UPA i AK: protystoiannia v zakhidnii Ukraiini 1939-1945. Kyiv: Vydavnychyi Dim “Kyievo-Mohylians’ka Akademia”.

Ivanova, Yelena (2008) “Regionalnyie osobiennosti kolektivnoi pamiati studentov o holokoste w sovremennoi Ukrainie.” Holokost i suchasnist’. Studii v Ukraini i sviti 2: 9–28.

Jilge, Wilfried (2007) “Competing Victimhoods – Ukrainian Narratives on World War II.” In Shared History, Divided Memory: Jews and Others in Soviet-occupied Poland, 1939-1941, edited by Elazar Barkan, Elizabeth A. Cole, and Kai Struve, 103–131. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag.

Jilge, Wilfried, and Stefan Troebst (Hrsg.). Divided Historical Cultures World War II and Historical Memory in Soviet and Post-Soviet Ukraine. Wiesbaden 2006 (= Themenheft von Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 54 [2006], H. 1)

Kasianov, Georgii (2006) “The Burden of the Past. The Ukrainian-Polish Conflict of 1943-44 in Contemporary Public, Academic and Political Debates in Ukraine and Poland.” Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research 19: 247–259.

Klymenko, Lina. 2016. “Narrating the Second World War: History Textbooks and Nation-Building in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine.” Journal of Educational Media, Memory, and Society 8, 2:36–57.   

Marples, David R. “Anti-Soviet Partisans and Ukrainian Memory,” East European Politics & Societies 24, no.1 (February 2010): 26-43.

Motyka, Grzegorz. 2011. Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji “Wisła.” Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943-1947. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie.

Podols’kyi, Anatolii (2009) “Ukrains’ke suspil’stvo i pam’iat’ pro holokost: sproba analizu deiakykh aspektiv.” Holokost i suchasnist”. Studii v Ukraini i sviti 1: 47–59.

Portnov, Andriy. “The ‘Great Patriotic War’ in the Politics of Memory in Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine: Some Comparative Observations,” Ukraina moderna 15 (2009): 206-18

Portnov, Andriy. “The Motherland vs Stepan Bandera. Fieldtrip around Selected World War II Monuments in Contemporary Ukraine,” Otechestvennye zapiski 44 (2008)

Rossoliński-Liebe, Grzegorz. 2012. “Debating, Obfuscating and Disciplining the Holocaust: Post-Soviet Historical Discourses on the OUN–UPA and Other Nationalist Movements.” East European Jewish Affairs 42 (3): 199–241.

Rudling, Per A. 2011. The OUN, the UPA and the Holocaust: A Study in the Manufacturing of Historical Myths. The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies, no. 2107. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.

Serbyn, Roman. “Historical Memory and Statebuilding: The Myth of the Great Patriotic War in Independent Ukraine,” The Ukrainian Quarterly 59, no.1-2 (2003): 52-79

Siddi, Marco (2017) The Ukraine crisis and European memory politics of the Second World War, European Politics and Society, 18:4, 465-479, DOI: 10.1080/23745118.2016.1261435\

Yurchuk, Yuliya. 2014. Reordering of Meaningful Worlds: Memory of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army in Post-Soviet Ukraine. Stockholm: Acta.

18.4  Civil society in Ukraine

Cleary, Laura (2016) “Half Measures and Incomplete Reforms: The Breeding Ground for a Hybrid Civil Society in Ukraine.” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 16.1: 7–23.

Diuk, Nadia. 2014. “EUROMAIDAN: Ukraine’s Self-Organizing Revolution.” World Affairs 176 (6): 9–16.

Gatskova, Kseniia, and Maxim Gatskov (2016) “Third Sector in Ukraine: Civic Engagement Before and After the ‘Euromaidan.’” Voluntas 27: 673–94.

Gomza, Ivan, and Nadiia Koval (2015) “The Winter of our Discontent: Emotions and Contentious Politics in Ukraine during Euromaidan.” Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal 1: 39–62.

Grabovska, I. M.  „Civil Society as One of the Decisive Factors of the Ukrainians’ Consolidation in the Postcolonial Period.“ Granì 20, no. 2 (2017): 87-91.

Ishchenko, Volodymyr (2016) “Far Right Participation in the Ukrainian Maidan Protests: An Attempt of Systematic Estimation.” European Politics and Society 17.4: 453–72.

Krasynska, Svitlana, and Eric Martin (2017) “The Formality of Informal Civil Society: Ukraine’s EuroMaidan.” Voluntas 28: 420–49.

Kulyk, Volodymyr (2014) “Ukrainian Nationalism Since the Outbreak of Euromaidan.” Ab Imperio 3: 94–122.

Kuzio, Taras (2016) “The Orange and Euromaidan Revolutions: Theoretical and Comparative Perspectives.” Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal 2: 91–115.

Kuzio, Taras. 2015. Ukraine: Democratization, Corruption and the New Russian Imperialism. Santa Barbara: Praeger.

Kvit, Serhii (2014) “The Ideology of the Euromaidan.” Social, Health and Communication Studies Journal 1.1: 27–39.

Likhachev, Vyacheslav (2015) “The ‘Right Sector’ and Others: The Behavior and Role of Radical Nationalists in the Ukrainian Political Crisis of late 2013 – early 2014.” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 48: 257–71.

Lutsevych, Orysia (2013) How to Finish a Revolution: Civil Society and Democracy in Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. Chatham House, January.

Malyarenko, Tetyana, and David J. Galbreath. “Paramilitary Motivation in Ukraine: Beyond Integration and Abolition.” Southeast European and Black Sea Studies 16.1 (2016): 113–38.

Marples, David R., and Frederick V. Mills, eds. Ukraine’s Euromaidan. Analyses of a Civil Revolution. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2015.

Minakov, Mikhail. A Decisive Turn: Risks for Ukrainian Democracy after the Euromaidan. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, February 3, 2016.

Minakov, Mikhail. Corrupting Civil Society in post-Euromaidan Ukraine? Carnegie Moscow Centre, April 11, 2015.

Nagornyak, Tetyana. 2014. “State and Society in the Context of Ukrainian Events (Late 2013-Early 2013).” Evropsky Politicky a Pravni Diskurz 1 (4): 4–26.

Onuch, Olga, and Jerzy Onuch. Revolutionary Moments: Protest, Politics and Art. Warsaw; Kyiv: Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and NaUKMA Press, 2011.

Onuch, Olga. “Who Were the Protesters?” Journal of Democracy 25.3 (2014): 44–51.

Onuch, Olga. Mapping Mass Mobilization: Understanding Revolutionary Moments in Argentina and Ukraine. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

Orlova, Dariya. “EuroMaidan: Mediated Protests, Rituals and Nation-in-the-Making.” In Media Events, edited by Bianca Mitu et al., 207–29. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Piechal, Tomasz. 2015. “Disappointment and Fear – the Public Mood in Ukraine.” OSW, Osrodek Studiow Wschodnich, January.

Pishchikova, Kateryna, and Olesia Ogryzko. Civic Awakening: The Impact of Euromaidan on Ukraine’s Politics and Society. FRIDE: Working Paper, no. 124, July 2014. Accessed October 17, 2017.

Puglisi, Rosaria. “Heroes or Villains? Volunteer Battalions in Post-Maidan Ukraine.” IAI Working Paper, Rome: Instituto Affari Internazionale, 2015.

Shapovalova, Natalia. “Ukraine: Civil Volunteerism and the Legacy of Euromaidan.” In Global Civic Activism in Flux, edited by Richard Youngs, 47–52. Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2017.

Shekhovtsov, Anton, and Andreas Umland. “Ukraine’s Radical Right.” Journal of Democracy 25.3 (2014): 58–63.

Stacey, Simon, and Megan Meyer. “Civil Society and Violence: A Research Agenda.” Journal of Civil Society 1.2 (2005): 181–90.

Stepanenko, Victor. “Civil Society in Post-Soviet Ukraine: Civic Ethos in the Framework of Corrupted Sociality?” East European Politics and Societies 20.4 (2006): 571–97.

Stepanenko, Viktor, and Yarolsav Pylynskyi, eds. Ukraine after the Euromaidan: Challenges and Hopes. Bern: Peter Lang, 2015.

Stepanenko, Viktor. “Ukraine’s Revolution as De-Institutionalization of the Post-Soviet Order.” In Ukraine after the Euromaidan: Challenges and Hopes, edited by Viktor Stepanenko and Yarolsav Pylynskyi, 29–46. Bern: Peter Lang, 2015.

Stepanenko, Viktor. Hromadianske suspilstvo: dyskursy ta praktyky [Civil Society: Discourses and Practices]. Kyiv: Instytut Sotsiolohii NAN Ukraiiny, 2015.

Udovyk, Oksana. “Beyond Conflict and Weak Civil Society; Stories from Ukraine: Cases of Grassroots Initiatives for Sustainable Development.” East/West: Journal of Ukrainian Studies 4.2 (2017): 187–210.

Umland, Andreas. “Ukrainskyi dobrovolchi bataliony i polk ‘Azov’” [Ukrainian Voluntary Battalions and the ‘Azov’ Regiment].” Krytyka 19.11–12 (2016): 2–9.

18.5  Civil society and reconciliation/politics of memory/transitional justice in Ukraine

Civic Lustration Committee. 2015. “[A] Year of Lustration in Ukraine: History of Victories and Sabotage.” Kyiv: Civic Lustration Committee.

International Renaissance Foundation. 2010. Zmist Pidruchnykiv z Istorii Ukrainy ta Vsesvitnioii Istorii: Stavlennia ta Ochikuvannia Uchniv ta Batkiv v Konteksti Profesiinoi Otsinky Uchyteliv. Kiev:International Renaissance Foundation.

Narvselius, Eleonora. 2015. “Tragic Past, Agreeable Heritage: Post-Soviet Intellectual Discussions on the Polish Legacy in Western Ukraine.” The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Papers, no. 2401. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.

Rap, Myroslava (2015) The Public Role of the Church in Contemporary Ukrainian Society: The Contribution of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic Church to Peace and Reconciliation. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

18.6  Transitional justice in Ukraine

European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission). 2014. Interim Opinion on the Law on Government Cleansing (Lustration Law) of Ukraine, Adopted by the Venice Commission at its 101st Plenary Session. Venice, December 12–13.

European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission). 2015. Final Opinion on the Law on Government Cleansing (Lustration Law) of Ukraine as would result from the amendments submitted to the Verkhovna Rada on April 21, 2015. Opinion No. 788/2014, CDL-AD(2015)012, Venice, June 19–20.

Institute of World Policy. 2012. How to Get Rid of Post-Sovietness? Kyiv: Institute of World Policy.

Law of Ukraine “Law on the condemnation of the communist and national socialist (Nazi) regimes, and prohibition of propaganda of their symbols.” 2015. Kyiv, April 9.

Law of Ukraine on the Purification of Government. 2014. September 16. Закон України Про очищення влади, Відомості Верховної Ради (ВВР), 2014, № 44, ст.2041.

Law of Ukraine on the Restoration of Trust in the Judiciary. 2014. April 8. Закон України Про відновлення довіри до судової влади в Україні, Відомості Верховної Ради (ВВР), 2014, № 23, ст.870.

Olszański, Tadeusz. 2014. The Ukrainian Lustration Act. Ośrodek Studiów Wschodnich, October 1.

Piasecka, Agnieszka. 2015. Report: Purification of Government or Vetting Ukrainian Style. The First Year’s Experience. Warsaw: The Open Dialog Foundation, November 5.

Trochev, Alexei. 2013. “Ukraine,” in Stan, Lavinia and Nedelsky, Nadya, eds. Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press, Vol. 2: 490–7.

19    Russia

19.1  History and memory in Russia

Blakkisrud, Helge, and Pål Kolstø. Russia before and after Crimea : Nationalism and Identity 2010-17. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2018.

Blakkisrud, Helge, and Pål Kolstø. The New Russian Nationalism. Imperialism, Ethnicity and Authoritarianism 2000-2015. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press, 2016.

Brandenberger, David. 2009. “A New Short Course? A.V. Filippov and the Russian State’s Search for a ‘Usable Past’.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 10, 4: 825–33.

Brown, Archie and Shevtsova, Lilia. eds. 2001. Gorbachev, Yeltsin and Putin: Political Leadership in Russia’s Transition. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Dubin, Boris. 2011. Rossiya nulevykh: Politicheskaya kul’tura, istoricheskaya pamyat’, povsednevnaya zhizn’. Moscow: ROSSPEN.

Etkind, Aleksander. 2009. “Post-Soviet Hauntology: Cultural Memory of the Soviet Terror.” Constellations 16, 1: 182–200.   

Gjerde, K. L. (2015) The use of history in Russia 2000–2011: The Kremlin and the search for consensus. East European Politics, 31(2), 149–169.

Greene, S., Lipman, M.,and Ryabov, A. (2010) Engaging history. The problems and politics of memory in Russia and the post-socialist space. Moscow: Carnegie.

Kirschenbaum, L. A. (2010) Nothing is forgotten. Individual memory and the myth of the Great Patriotic War. In F. Biess and R. Moeller (Eds.), Histories of the aftermath. The legacies of the Second World War in Europe (pp. 67–82). Oxford: Berghahn.

Koposov, Nikolai. 2011. “‘The Armored Train of Memory’: The Politics of History in Post-Soviet Russia.” Perspectives on History 49, 1: 23–31.

Mendelson, Sarah E. and Gerber, Theodore P. 2006. “Failing the Stalin Test: Russians and Their Dictator.” Foreign Affairs 85, 1: 2–8.   

Miller, Alexey. 2009. “Rossia: Vlast’ i Istoria (Russia: Authority and History).” Pro et Contra 13 (May-August), 6–23.

Roginskii, Arsenii. 2011. “Pamiat’o Stalinizme,” in Kandrashina, Elena I., ed. Istoriia stalinizma: itogi i problem izucheniia. Moscow: ROSSPEN, 21–7.

Rudzite, Liga.

Sherlock, Thomas D. 2007. Historical Narratives in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Russia: Destroying the Settled Past, Creating an Uncertain Future. 1st ed. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Sherlock, Thomas. 2016. “Russian Politics and the Soviet Past: Reassessing Stalin and Stalinism under Vladimir Putin,” Communist and Post-Communist Studies 49, 1: 45–59.

Shnirelman, Victor A. 2011. “From Social Classes to Ethnicities: Ethnocentric Views in History Textbooks in Post-Soviet Russia.” Journal of Eurasian Studies 2 (2): 125–33. doi:10.1016/j.euras.2011.03.003.

Smith, Kathleen. 1996. Remembering Stalin’s Victims: Popular Memory and the End of the USSR. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

19.2  Civil society in Russia

Bindman, Eleanor (2015) The state, civil society and social rights in contemporary Russia. East European Politics 31:3, pages 342-360.

Brunarska, Zuzanna (2017) Understanding Sociopolitical Engagement of Society in Russia. Problems of Post-Communism 0:0, pages 1-12.

Buxton, Charles. Russia and Development : Capitalism, Civil Society and the State. London : Zed Books, 2014.

Casanova, José Luís, Maria Das Dores Guerreiro, and Irina Pervova. „Contemporary Changes and Civil Society in Portugal and the Russian Federation .“ European Politics and Society, 2018, 1-19.

Chebankova, Elena. „Competing Ideologies of Russia’s Civil Society.“ Europe-Asia Studies 67, no. 2 (2015): 244-68.

Chebankova, Elena. „State-sponsored Civic Associations in Russia: Systemic Integration or the ‘war of Position’?“ East European Politics 28, no. 4 (2012): 1-19.

Chebankova, Elena. „The Evolution of Russia’s Civil Society under Vladimir Putin: A Cause for Concern or Grounds for Optimism?“ Perspectives on European Politics and Society 10, no. 3 (2009): 394-415.

Chebankova, Elena. Civil Society in Putin’s Russia. BASEES/RoutledgeCurzon Series on Russian and East European Studies 87. London : Routledge, 2013.

Cheskin, Ammon, and Luke March. „State–society Relations in Contemporary Russia: New Forms of Political and Social Contention.“ East European Politics 31, no. 3 (2015): 261-73.

Construire L’Europe, La Démocratie Et La Société Civile De La Russie Aux Balkans : Les écoles D’études Politiques Du Conseil De L’Europe, Entretiens = Building Europe, Democracy and Civil Society from Russia to Balkans : The Schools of Political Studies of the Council of Europe, Interviews. Inter-national. Paris : Harmattan, 2011.

Crotty, Jo, Sarah Marie Hall, and Sergej Ljubownikow. „Post-Soviet Civil Society Development in the Russian Federation: The Impact of the NGO Law.“ Europe-Asia Studies 66, no. 8 (2014): 1253-269.

Daucé, Françoise. „The Government and Human Rights Groups in Russia: Civilized Oppression?“ Journal of Civil Society 10, no. 3 (2014): 1-16.

Diuk, Nadia. The next Generation in Russia, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan : Youth, Politics, Identity, and Change. Lanham, Maryland : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012.

Evans, Alfred B. „Introduction: Civil Society in Contemporary Russia.“ Communist and Post-Communist Studies 45, no. 3-4 (2012): 217-18.

Evans, Alfred B. „Protests and Civil Society in Russia: The Struggle for the Khimki Forest.“ Communist and Post-Communist Studies 45, no. 3-4 (2012): 233-42.

Flikke, Geir. „Resurgent Authoritarianism: The Case of Russia’s New NGO Legislation.“ Post-Soviet Affairs 32, no. 2 (2015): 1-29.

Gilbert, Leah (2016) Crowding Out Civil Society: State Management of Social Organisations in Putin’s Russia. Europe-Asia Studies 68:9, pages 1553-1578.

Gilbert, Leah, and Payam Mohseni. „Disabling Dissent: The Colour Revolutions, Autocratic Linkages, and Civil Society Regulations in Hybrid Regimes.“ Contemporary Politics 24, no. 4 (2018): 454-80.

Gill, Graeme, and Roger D. Markwick. „A Stunted Civil Society.“ In Russia’s Stillborn Democracy?, Russia’s Stillborn Democracy?, Chapter 6. Oxford University Press, 2000.

Gladarev, Boris, Markku Lonkila. (2013) Justifying Civic Activism in Russia and Finland. Journal of Civil Society 9:4, pages 375-390.

Greene, Samuel A. Moscow in Movement : Power and Opposition in Putin’s Russia. Redwood City: Stanford University Press, 2014.

Hendersen, Sarah. “Selling Civil Society: Western Aid and the Nongovernmental Organization Sector in Russia”. Comparative Politics Studies 35.2 (2002): 139–67.

Henderson, Sarah L. „Civil Society in Russia.“ Problems of Post-Communism 58, no. 3 (2011): 11-27.

Jacobsson, Kerstin, Saxonberg, Steven, and Jakobsson, Kerstin. „Introduction: A New Look at Social Movements and Civil Society in Postcommunist Russia and Poland.“ East European Politics 28, no. 4 (2012): 329-31.

Javeline, D., and S. Lindemann-Komarova. 2010. “Rethinking Russia: A Balanced Assessment of Russian Civil Society.” Journal of International Affairs 63 (2): 171–88.

Karagod, Yu G „Civil Society and Social Justice: Interdependency of the Concepts and Specificity of the Russian Interpretation.“ Vestnik Rossijskogo Universiteta Družby Narodov: Seriâ Sociologiâ, no. 2 (2011): 93-98.

Kubicek, Paul. „Civil Society, Trade Unions and Post-Soviet Democratisation: Evidence from Russia and Ukraine.“ Europe-Asia Studies 54, no. 4 (2002): 603-24.

Lasnier, Virginie (2017) Demobilisation and its Consequences: After the Russian Movement Za chestnye vybory. Europe-Asia Studies 69:5, pages 771-793.

Abstract | Full Text | PDF (379 KB) | Permissions 

Levin, Il’Ia B. „Civil Society in the West and in Russia.“ Sociological Research 36, no. 5 (1997): 62-82.

Lokshina, Tanya. „Erosion of Democracy and Grave Threats to Civil Society in Russia.“ Helsinki Monitor 17, no. 3 (2006): 205-06.

Mazepus, Honorata, Wouter Veenendaal, Anthea McCarthy-Jones, Juan Manuel Trak Vásquez. (2016) A comparative study of legitimation strategies in hybrid regimes. Policy Studies 37:4, pages 350-369.

Petrone, Laura. „Institutionalizing Pluralism in Russia: A New Authoritarianism?“ Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 27, no. 2 (2011): 166-94

Robertson, Graeme B. „Managing Society: Protest, Civil Society, and Regime in Putin’s Russia.“ Slavic Review 68, no. 3 (2009): 528-47.

Ross, Cameron. „State against Civil Society: Contentious Politics and the Non-Systemic Opposition in Russia.“ Europe-Asia Studies 67, no. 2 (2015): 171-76.

Sagan, Iwona. „Post‐Socialist Transformation, European Neighbourhood and Civil Society Networks between Poland, Russia and Ukraine: A Case of Multi‐level Contingency.“ Journal of European Integration 32, no. 5 (2010): 439-56.

Salmenniemi, Suvi. „The Making of Civil Society in Russia: A Bourdieuan Approach.“ International Sociology 29, no. 1 (2014): 38-55.

Samuel A. Greene. „Russian Civil Society, 20 Years Later.“ Revista CIDOB D’Afers Internacionals, no. 96 (2011): 81-96.

Skokova, Yulia, Ulla Pape, Irina Krasnopolskaya. (2018) The Non-profit Sector in Today’s Russia: Between Confrontation and Co-optation. Europe-Asia Studies 70:4, pages 531-563.

Abstract | Full Text | PDF (510 KB) | Permissions 

Stewart, and Dollbaum. „Civil Society Development in Russia and Ukraine: Diverging Paths.“ Communist and Post-Communist Studies 50, no. 3 (2017): 207-20.

Stuvøy, Kirsti. „Power and Public Chambers in the Development of Civil Society in Russia.“ Communist and Post-Communist Studies 47, no. 3-4 (2014): 409-19.

Sundstrom, Lisa McIntosh. Funding Civil Society : Foreign Assistance and NGO Development in Russia. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford University Press, 2006.

 Uhlin, Anders. 2006. Post-Soviet Civil Society: Democratization in Russia and the Baltic States. BASEES/Routledge Series on Russian and East European Studies 25. London: Routledge.

White, David (2013) Taking it to the Streets: Raising the Costs of Electoral Authoritarianism in Russia. Perspectives on European Politics and Society 14:4, pages 582-598.

White, David (2015) Political opposition in Russia: the challenges of mobilisation and the political–civil society nexus. East European Politics 31:3, pages 314-325.

White, David. „Political Opposition in Russia: The Challenges of Mobilisation and the Political–civil Society Nexus.“ East European Politics 31, no. 3 (2015): 314-25.

Ильинская, Светлана Геннадьевна. „Russian Civil Society: The Way of the Consolidation.“ Vestnik Rossijskogo Universiteta Družby Narodov: Seriâ Politologiâ, no. 4 (2011): 50-67.

Почта, Юрий Михайлович and Татьяна Валентиновна Оберемко. „The Problem of Formation of Civil Society in Russia.“ Vestnik Rossijskogo Universiteta Družby Narodov: Seriâ Politologiâ, no. 3 (2011): 5-16.

19.3  Civil society and reconciliation/politics of memory/transitional justice in Russia

Adler, Nanci. 1993. Victims of Soviet Terror: The Story of the Memorial Movement. Westport: Praeger.

White, Anne. 1995. “The Memorial Society in the Russian Provinces.” Europe-Asia Studies, 47, 8: 1343–66.   

19.4  Transitional justice in Russia

Adler, Nanci (2018). Challenges to Transitional Justice in Russia. In C. Horne and L. Stan (Eds.), Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union: Reviewing the Past, Looking toward the Future(pp. 45-65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Adler, Nanci. 2002. The Gulag Survivor: Beyond the Soviet System. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Adler, Nanci. 2005. “The Future of the Soviet Past Remains Unpredictable: The Resurrection of Stalinist Symbols Amidst the Exhumation of Mass Graves.” Europe-Asia Studies 57, 8: 1093–119.   

Adler, Nanci. 2012. “‘The Bright Past’, or Whose (Hi)story? Challenges in Russia and Serbia Today.” Filozofija i društvo 23, 4: 119–38.

Adler, Nanci. 2012. “Reconciliation with – or Rehabilitation of – the Soviet Past?” Memory Studies 5, 3: 327–38.   

Adler, Nanci. 2012. Keeping Faith with the Party: Communist Believers Return from the Gulag. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Adler, Nanci. 2013. “Russia,” in Stan, Lavinia and Nedelsky, Nadya, eds. Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press, Vol. 2: 404–12.

Andrieu, Kora. 2011. “An Unfinished Business: Transitional Justice and Democratization in Post-Soviet Russia.” International Journal of Transitional Justice 5, 2: 198–220.

Getty, J. Arch, Rittersporn, Gábor T., and Zemskov, Viktor N. 1993. “Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Material.” American Historical Review 98, 4: 1017–49.

Golovkova, L. A. 2004. Butovskii Poligon. 1937-38gg. Kniga pamiati zhertv politicheskikh repressi. Moscow: Izdatel’stvo ‘Al’zo’.

Khubova, Daria. 1994. “Imprisoned History: The KGB Archives.” The Journal of the International Institute 1, 1 Winter.

Knight, Amy. 1996. Spies without Cloaks: The KGB’s Successors. Princeton: Princeton University Press.   

Kramer, M. (2018). Public Memory and Communist Legacies in Poland and Russia. In C. Horne and L. Stan (Eds.), Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union: Reviewing the Past, Looking toward the Future (pp. 66-87). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

“Ob utverzhdenii kontseptsii gosudarstvennoi politiki po uvekovecheniiu pamiati zhertv politicheskikh repressii.” 2015. August 18, available at:

Reabilitatsiya. Kak eto bylo. Dokumenty Politbyuro TsK KPSS, stenogrammy zasedaniya Komissii Politbyuro TsK KPSS po dopolnitel’nomu izucheniyu materialov, svyazannykh s repressiyami, imevshimi mesto v period 30-40-kh i nachala 50-kh godov, i drugie materialy. 2004. Moscow: Materik.

20    Chechnya

Baev, Pavel. 2005. “Chechnya and the Russian Military: A War too Far?” In Chechnya from Past to Future, edited by Richard Sakwa, 117–130. London: Wimbledon.

Bakke, Kristin, John O’Loughlin, and Michael Ward. 2009. “Reconciliation in Conflict-Affected Societies: Multilevel Modeling of Individual and Contextual Factors in the North Caucasus of Russia.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99 (5): 1012–1021.

Burger, Ethan, and Serguei Cheloukhine. 2013. Counterterrorism in Areas of Political Unrest. The Case of Russia’s Northern Caucasus. New York: Springer.

Cassidy, Robert. 2008. Counterinsurgency and the Global War on Terror: Military Culture and Irregular War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Cornell, Svante. 1999. “International Reactions to Massive Human Rights Violations: The Case of Chechnya.” Europe-Asia Studies 51 (1): 85–100.

Cornell, Svante. 2012. “The ‘Afghanization’ of the North Caucasus: Causes and Implications of a Changing Conflict.” In Russia’s Homegrown Insurgency: Jihad in the North Caucasus, edited by Stephen Blank, 121–154. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.

Dannreuther, Roland, and Luke March. 2008. “Chechnya: Has Moscow Won?” Survival 50: 97–112.

Druey, Cécile. 2015 “Stability without Peace in Chechnya.” Politorbis 2: 43–47.

Druey, Cécile. 2012. “Ruhe Ohne Sicherheit Im Nordaukasus.” KOFF Newsletter 106 (April): 5–6.

Elena Zhirukhina (2018) Protecting the state: Russian repressive tactics in the North Caucasus, Nationalities Papers, 46:3, 374-399.

Foxall, Andrew. 2014. Ethnic Relations in Post-Soviet Russia: Russians and Non-Russians in the North Caucasus. London: Routledge.

Gammer, Moshe. 2002. “Nationalism and History: Rewriting the Chechen National Past.” In Secession, History and the Social Sciences, edited by Bruno Coppieters and Michel Huysseune, 117–40. Brussels, Belgium: VUB Brussels University Press.

Gilligan, Emma. 2009. Terror in Chechnya: Russia and the Tragedy of Civilians in War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Grodnenskii, Nikolai. 2010. The Second Chechen War: History of the Armed Conflict. Moscow: Russian Panorama.

Holland, Mary, „Chechnya’s Internally Displaced and the Role of Russia’s Non-Governmental Organizations.“ Journal of Refugee Studies 17, no. 3 (2004): 334-46.

Hughes, James. 2007. Chechnya from Nationalism to Jihad. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Hughes, James. 2008. Chechnya: From Nationalism to Jihad. Philadelphia, Pa.; Bristol: University of Pennsylvania Press ; University Presses Marketing.

International Crisis Group 2012a. The North Caucasus: The Challenges of Integration (I), Ethnicity and Conflict. Brussels.

International Crisis Group 2012b. The North Caucasus: The Challenges of Integration (II), Islam, The Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency. Brussels.

International Crisis Group. 2016. The North Caucasus Insurgency and Syria: An Exported Jihad? Brussels: International Crisis Group.

Kavkazskii Uzel. 2017. “Infographics. Statistics of Victims in Northern Caucasus for 2016 under the data of the Caucasian Knot.” Kavkazskii Uzel [Caucasian Knot].

Klimenko, Ekaterina, and Neil John Melvin. 2016. “Decreasing Violence in the North Caucasus: Is an End to the Regional Conflict in Sight?” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

Koehler, Jan, Alexey Gunya, and Magomed Alkhazurov. 2016. “Insurgency-informed Governance in the North Caucasus: Observations from Chechnya, Dagestan, and Kabardino-Balkaria.” Small Wars and Insurgencies 27 (3): 367–391.

Kramer, Mark. 2005. “The Perils of Counterinsurgency: Russia’s War in Chechnya.” International Security 29: 5–63.

Kuchins, Andrew, Matthew Malarkey, and Sergey Markedonov. 2011. The North Caucasus: Russia’s Volatile Frontier. Washington, DC: CSIS.

Lapidus, Gail. 2012. “Putin’s War on Terrorism: Lessons from Chechnya.” Post-Soviet Affairs 18 (1): 41–48.

Lieven, Anatol. 1999. Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Linke, Andrew M., and John O’Loughlin. 2015. “Reconceptualizing, Measuring, and Evaluating Distance and Context in the Study of Conflicts: Using Survey Data from the North Caucasus of Russia.” International Studies Review 17: 107–125.

Linke, Andrew M., Frank D. W. Witmer, Edward C. Holland, and John O’Loughlin. 2017. “Mountainous Terrain and Civil Wars: Geospatial Analysis of Conflict Dynamics in the Post-Soviet Caucasus.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 107: 520–535.

Lokshina, Tatyana, and Aleksandr Cherkasov. “Chechnya: 10 Years of Armed Conflict.” Helsinki Monitor 2 (2005): 143–49.

Lokshina, T., Ray Thomas, and Mary Mayer, eds. The Imposition of a Fake Political Settlement in the Northern Caucasus: The 2003 Chechen Presidential Election. Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 22. Stuttgart: Ibidem-Verlag, 2005.

Lyall, Jason. 2009. “Does Indiscriminate Violence Incite Insurgent Attacks? Evidence from Chechnya.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53: 331–362.

Lyall, Jason. 2010. “Are Coethnics More Effective Counterinsurgents? Evidence from the Second Chechen War.” American Political Science Review 104 (1): 1–20.

Malashenko, Aleksey. Ramzan Kadyrov: Rossiyskiy Politik Kavkazskoy Natsional’nosti (“Ramzan Kadyrov: Russian Politician of Caucasian Nationality”). Moscow: Rospen, 2009.

Melvin, Neil J. 2007. “Building Stability in the North Caucasus: Ways Forward for Russia and the European Union.” Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

Memorial Human Rights Center 2011. “Nine Months of CTO: Prielbrusye is on the Brink of Survival”. Moscow.

Memorial. 2016. Counter-Terrorism in the North Caucasus: A Human Rights Perspective. 2014 – First Half of 2016. Moscow: Memorial Human Rights Centre.

O’Loughlin, John, and Frank D. W. Witmer. 2012. “The Diffusion of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999–2010.” Environment and Planning A 44: 2379–2396.

O’Loughlin, John, and Frank Witmer. 2011. “The Localized Geographies of Violence in the North Caucasus of Russia, 1999–2007.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101 (1): 178–201.

O’Loughlin, John, Edward Holland, and Frank Witmer. 2011. “The Changing Geography of Violence in Russia’s North Caucasus, 1999–2011: Regional Trends and Local Dynamics in Dagestan, Ingushetiia, and Kabardino-Balkaria.” Eurasian Geography and Economics 52 (5): 596–630.

Oliker, Olga. 2001. Russia’s Chechen Wars 1994–2000. Lessons from Urban Combat. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Perović, Jeronim. 2015. Der Nordkaukasus Unter Russischer Herrschaft: Geschichte Einer Vielvölkerregion Zwischen Rebellion Und Anpassung. Beiträge Zur Geschichte Osteuropas, Band 49. Köln: Böhlau Verlag.

Ratelle, Jean-François, and Emil Souleimanov. 2016. “A Perfect Counterinsurgency? Making Sense of Moscow’s Policy of Chechenisation.” Europe-Asia Studies 68 (8): 1287–1314.

Sagramoso, Domitilla. 2007. “Violence and Conflict in the Russian North Caucasus.” International Affairs 83: 681–705.

Sakwa, Richard. 2010. “The Revenge of the Caucasus: Chechenization and the Dual State in Russia.” Nationalities Papers 38: 601–622.

Shnirelʹman, V. A. 2003. Voiny Pamyati: Mify, Identichnostʹ I Politika v Zakavkazʹe. Moskva: Akademkniga.

Shnirel’man, Victor. “A Revolt of Social Memory: The Chechens and Ingush against the Soviet Historians.” In Reconstruction and Interaction of Slavic Eurasia and Ist Neighbouruing Worlds, edited by I. Osamu and U. Tomohiko. Hokkaido: Hokkaido University, 2006.

———. Byt’ Alanami: Intellektual’naya Politika Na Severnom Kavkaze (“To Be Alany: Intellectual Politics in the North Caucasus”). Moscow: Novoe Literaturnoe Obozrenie, 2006.

———. “The Politics of a Name: Between Consolidation and Separation in the Northern Caucasus.” Acta Slavica Iaponica 2 (2006): 37–73.

———. “The Politics of the Past in Dagestan: National Unity and Symbolic Revolt.” Europe-Asia Studies 70, no. 6 (July 3, 2018): 966–90.

———. The Value of the Past : Myths, Identity and Politics in Transcaucasia. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology, 2001.

Šmíd, Tomáš, and Miroslav Mareš. 2015. “‘Kadyrovtsy’: Russia’s Counterinsurgency Strategy and the Wars of Paramilitary Clans.” Journal of Strategic Studies 38 (5): 1–28.

Sokirianskaya, Ekaterina. 2014. “State and Violence in Chechnya (1997–1999).” In Chechnya at War and Beyond, edited by Anne Le Huerou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey, and Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski, 93–117. London: Routledge.

Souleimanov, Emil, and David Siroky. 2016. “Random or Retributive? Indiscriminate Violence in the Chechen Wars.” World Politics 4 (4): 1–36.

Souleimanov, Emil, and Huseyn Aliyev. 2014. The Individual Disengagement of Avengers, Nationalists, and Jihadists: Why Ex-Militants Choose to Abandon Violence in the North Caucasus. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Souleimanov, Emil. 2015a. “Jihad or Security? Understanding the Jihadization of Chechen Insurgency through Recruitment into Jihadist Units.” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies 17 (1): 86–105.

Souleimanov, Emil. 2015b. “An Ethnography of Counterinsurgency: Kadyrovtsy and Russia’s Policy of Chechenization.” Post-Soviet Affairs 31 (2): 91–114.

Speckhard, Anne, and Khapta Akhmedova. 2006. “The New Chechen Jihad: Militant Wahhabism as a Radical Movement and a Source of Suicide Terrorism in Post-War Chechen Society.” Democracy and Security 2 (1): 103–155.

Starodubovskaya, Irina. 2013. “A Cure for Fear: What Kind of Policy Can Ease the Conflict in the North Caucasus of Russia.” Economic Policy, November: 1–23.

Taylor, Brian D. 2007. “Putin’s ‘Historic Mission’: State-Building and the Power Ministries in the North Caucasus.” Problems of Post-Communism 54: 3–16.

Thomas, Timothy. 2005. “Russian Tactical Lessons Learned Fighting Chechen Separatists.” The Journal of Slavic Military Studies 18 (4): 731–766.

Toft, Monica, and Yuri Zhukov. 2012. “Denial and Punishment in the North Caucasus: Evaluating the Effectiveness of Coercive Counter-Insurgency.” Journal of Peace Research 49 (6): 785–800.

Toft, Monica, and Yuri Zhukov. 2015. “Islamists and Nationalists: Rebel Motivation and Counterinsurgency in Russia’s North Caucasus.” American Political Science Review 109(2): 222–238.

Trenin, Dmitri, Aleksei Malashenko, and Anatol Lieven. 2004. Russia’s Restless Frontier. The Chechnya Factor in Post-Soviet Russia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution Press.

Vendina, Olga, Vitaly Belozerov, and Andrew Gustafson. 2007. “The Wars in Chechnya and their Effects on Neighboring Regions.” Eurasian Geography and Economics 48 (2): 178–201.

Ware, Robert. 2011. “Has the Russian Federation been Chechenised?” Europe-Asia Studies 63: 493–508.

Zhukov, Yuri. 2012. “Roads and the Diffusion of Insurgent Violence. The Logistics of Conflict in Russia’s North Caucasus.” Political Geography 31 (3): 144–156.

Zürcher, Christoph. 2007. The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus. New York, NY: NYU Press.

21    Georgia

Abdullaeva, Arzu, Sophia Dobinskaya, Ida Kuklina, Lyubov Vinogradova, and Fatima Yandieva. 2000. “Civil Society and Peace-Building in the North and South Caucasus (transcript).” Caspian Studies Programme. Harvard: Harvard Kennedy School for Science and International Affairs.

Aliyev, Huseyn (2015) Post-Communist Civil Society and the Soviet Legacy: Challenges of Democratisation and Reform in the Caucasus. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Aliyev, Huseyn. 2011. “Aid Efficiency in an Armed Conflict. The Role of Civil Society in the Escalation of Violence in the North Caucasus.” IFHV Working Papers 1 (1).

Allen Nan, Susan, and Kosta Dzugaev, eds. 2011. Georgian-South Ossetian Conflict: Researching Peace. Collection of South Ossetian Papers. Tskhinval: George Mason University and Center for Information Technology “Intellectual Ressources.”

Antonenko, Oksana. 2005. “Frozen Uncertainty: Russia and the Conflict over Abkhazia.” In Statehood and Security: Georgia after the Rose Revolution, edited by Bruno Coppieters and Robert Legvold, 205–70. American Academy Studies in Global Security. Cambridge, Mass: American Academy of Arts and Sciences : MIT Press.

Austin, R. (2018). Confronting the Soviet and Post-Soviet Past in Georgia. In C. Horne and L. Stan (Eds.), Transitional Justice and the Former Soviet Union: Reviewing the Past, Looking toward the Future (pp. 243-262). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bakradze, Lasha. 2013. “Georgia and Stalin: Still Living with the Great Son of the Nation,” in The Stalin Puzzle: Deciphering Post-Soviet Public Opinion. Washington: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Batiashvili, Nutsa. 2012. “The ‘Myth’ of the Self: The Geogian National Narrative and Quest for ‘Georgianness.’” In Memory and Political Change, edited by Aleida Assmann and Linda Shortt, 186–200. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bendtsen Gotfredsen, Katrine. 2014. “Void Pasts and Marginal Presents: On Nostalgia and Obsolete Futures in the Republic of Georgia.” Slavic Review 73, 2: 246–64.

Cornell, Svante E. 2002. “Autonomy as a Source of Conflict: Caucasian Conflicts in Theoretical Perspective.” World Politics 54 (02): 245–76. doi:10.1353/wp.2002.0002.

De Waal, Thomas. 2004. Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War. New York: New York Univ. Press.

De Waal, Thomas. 2010. The Caucasus. An introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dolidze, Anna and de Waal, Thomas. 2012. “A Truth Commission for Georgia.” Carnegie Europe, December 5, available at:

Druey, Cécile, and Alexander Skakov. 2015. “Konflikt I Mir v Yuzhnoy Osetii – S Tochki Zreniya Mestnogo Naseleniya (‘Conflict and Peace in South Ossetia – from a Local Point of View’).” Kavkazoved, April.

Fairbanks, Charles H. Jr. and Gugashvili, Alexi. 2013. “A New Chance for Georgian Democracy.” Journal of Democracy 24, 1: 116–27.   

Frichova, Magdalena. 2009. Transitional Justice and Georgia’s Conflicts: Breaking the Silence. New York: International Center for Transitional Justice ICTJ.

Hewitt, B. G. 2013. Discordant Neighbours: A Reassessment of the Georgian-Abkhazian and Georgian-South-Ossetian Conflicts. Eurasian Studies Library, volume 3. Leiden ; Boston: Brill.

Hewitt, B. G., ed. 1998. The Abkhazians: A Handbook. Peoples of the Caucasus and the Black Sea. New York, N.Y: St. Martin’s Press.

Hille, Charlotte Mathilde Louise. 2010. State Building and Conflict Resolution in the Caucasus. Leiden: Brill.   

Ishiyama, Mezvrishvili, and Zhgenti. „An Oasis of Democracy in an Authoritarian Sea? Civil Society, Social, and Institutional Trust in Georgia.“ Communist and Post-Communist Studies 51, no. 1 (2018): 19-26.

Jirouš, Dana. 2017. Erinnerung Als Mobilisierungsressource Im Vorfeld Ethnisierter Gewaltkonflikte. Das Beispiel Nordossetien – Inguschetien, 1989-1992. Vol. 23. Gesellschaften Und Staaten Im Epochenwandel. Bern: Peter Lang Verlag.

Kupatadze, Alexander. 2016. “Georgia’s Break with the Past.” Journal of Democracy 27, 110–23.   

Lakoba, Stanislav. 1993. Stoletnaya Voyna Gruzii Protiv Abkhazii (“A Century-Long War of Georgia against Abkhaziya”). Gagra: Gagrskaya tipografiya.

Lynch, Dov. 1999. Russian Peacekeeping Strategies in the CIS: The Case of Moldova, Georgia and Tajikistan. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

MacFarlane, S. Neil. 2009. “Frozen Conflicts in the Former Soviet Union – The Case of Georgia/South Ossetia.” In OSCE Yearbook 2008, edited by Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg / IFSH, 23–34. Nomos.

MacFarlane, S. Neil. 2011. “Post-Revolutionary Georgia On the Edge?” Briefing paper for Chatham House, March,

Mankoff, Jeffrey. „“Un-Civil Society” and the Sources of Russian Influence in West Asia: The South Caucasus.“ In The Great Game in West Asia, The Great Game in West Asia, Chapter 006. Oxford University Press, 2017.

North, Andrew. 2015. “Georgia’s Stalin Museum Gives Soviet Version of Dictator’s Life Story.” The Guardian, April 8.

O’Loughlin, John, Vladimir Kolossov, and Gerard Toal. 2014. “Inside the de facto States: A Comparison of Attitudes in Abkhazia, Nagorny Karabakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.” Eurasian Geography and Economics 55: 423–456.

Patten, Sam and Cicere, Michael. 2012. “Victors’ Justice in Georgia?” The National Interest, December 7,

Sherlock, Thomas. 2013. “Georgia,” in Stan, Lavinia and Nedelsky, Nadya, eds. Encyclopedia of Transitional Justice. New York: Cambridge University Press, Vol. 2: 186–93.

Shnirelman, Victor. 2003. Voina pamyati: Mif’i, identichosti i politika v zakavkaz’e [Wars of Memory: Myths, Identity and Politics in Transcaucasia]. Moscow: Akademkniga.

Toria, Malkhas. 2014. “The Soviet Occupation of Georgia in 1921 and the Russian-Georgian War of August 2008: Historical Analogy as a Memory Project,” in Jones, Stephen, ed. The Making of Modern Georgia, 1918–2012. London: Routledge, 316–35.

Zemskov-Züge, Andrea. 2016. “Contrary Memories: Bases, Chances and Constraints of Dealing with the Past in Georgian-Abkhaz Dialogue.” In . Prague.

22    Methodology 

Adloff, Frank. 2005. Zivilgesellschaft: Theorie und politische Praxis. Campus Studium. Frankfurt New York: Campus Verlag.

Brier, Robert. 2004. “Diskursanalyse. Chancen und Möglichkeiten einer kulturwissenschaftlichen Forschungsperspektive am Beispiel des polnischen Verfassungsdiskurses 1989–1997.” In Politikwissenschaft als Kulturwissenschaft, edited by Birgit Schwelling, 107–27. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Keller, Reiner. 2007. Diskursforschung eine Einführung für SozialwissenschaftlerInnen. Wiesbaden: VS Verl. für Sozialwissenschaften.

23    Databases

Transitional Justice Database Project

The Transitional Justice Data Base Project began at the University of Wisconsin in 2005 and is led by three political scientists: Leigh A. Payne, Tricia D. Olsen, and Andrew G. Reiter. The team created a global database of over 900 mechanisms (trials, truth commissions, amnesties, reparations, and lustration policies) used from 1970-2007.

The main task of the project is to better understand how these mechanisms are used and whether they work, with the ultimate goal of improving policy. The team has published findings from the database in their book, Transitional Justice in Balance: Comparing Processes, Weighing Efficacy (USIP Press, 2010), as well as several journal articles.

The database is available on this website, but more information about the TJDB Project can be found on our project website. If you have any questions or comments about the project, or wish to learn more about our work, please contact Andrew Reiter at

Transitional Justice Research Collaborative

Lynch, Moira, and Bridget Marchesi. 2015. „The Adoption and Impact of Transitional Justice.“ In Post­ Communist Transitional Justice: Lessons From Twenty-Five Years of Experience, eds. Lavinia Stan and Nadya Nedelsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 73-96.


CIVICUS. “Monitor Tracking Civic Space.”

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